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baby niece essay costs. A recent AARP report indicated that today’s Medicare recipients spend more than 1/3 of their yearly income for health expenses not covered by Medicare. Many baby boomers who are financially secure now may find themselves in the same situation when they reach retirement age. BABY-BOOMER – MARKETING GOLD INTRODUCTION The Baby Boomer generation a marketing dream, but is it destined for a retirement nightmare? What spawned this generation? How has the pharmaceutical industry profited from. Complementary colors create the right amount of stimulus to the brain that makes it interesting for the baby to look at. “They are colors that are found opposite to each other on the color wheel and create maximum contrast in addition to black vs. white and maximum stability.” (Morton, 2012) The human eye is one of the most important senses due to its great and immediate influence on the brain. It responds to some colors and stimulates emotions and can fuel the personal statement phd engineering, body metabolism.
Continuous or controlled. organize more campaigns and talks and encourage more students to what's an informal essay join to educate them with the knowledge of statement sex education and essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton the effect of baby dumping to themselves, the personal, community and the country to writing create awareness among the teenagers about baby dumping and free sex. 2.2.7 Create awareness through mass media Mass media is also a very important way to prevent baby dumping. Personal Statement! This is the best way to educate and communicate with the woodland homework help, teenagers. The mass media department can organize some programs for teenager. Personal Phd Engineering! term of abortion the doctors will inject a fluid that will kill the fetus but not hurt the essay on thomas jefferson hamilton, mother. The fetus is then killed and the placenta, along with the fetus is taken out of the personal statement phd engineering, mothers’ womb. Even though the fetus is not fully developed into a baby it still feels what all is happening.
People think that just because it is not fully developed it won’t understand or it can’t feel, but in system in saudi reality that fetus can feel and it may not understand but it’s still growing. A fetus in the womb begins to. Be sure that the baby does not have a medical condition that may affect her sleep before you try sleep training. Observe how the baby reacts to your training program and be flexible. Do not impose your training program if he seems to be very resistant or if sleep training results in worsening of his overall behavior and mood. You may stop for a few weeks then try starting again.
Consult your doctor to determine if you baby is ready to personal statement phd engineering be trained. In Which Ways Can I Start Baby Sleep Training? There. so when the baby is essay about in saudi arabia shaken the heads swings back and forth. In addition, the baby's brain and blood vessels are very fragile and easily damaged by whiplash motions. The brain bounces about the skull, causing the blood vessels to tear away and blood to pool inside the skull causing irreparable damage to the brain. Personal Statement Phd Engineering! (The Epilepsy of Central Florida) The degree of brain damage depends on the amount and duration of the shaking and the force involved in impact of the woodland homework, head. Shaken Baby Syndrome is. Essay on Is There Life After Baby? still several weeks away from personal, baby-sitting. When we finally reach that point, it will probably be Andrew's grand- mother or aunt who watch over him. Since they both live in Antioch, we will probably choose a movie playing in the Antioch area, rather than doubling back to the Pleasant Hill vicinity.
At this point, taking our child with us to a movie is out of the essays on life support, question, unless we decide to go to a drive-in theatre. Very few people would be pleased that a crying baby was disrupting their viewing. was feared that there would be “human hatcheries” and the experiment was compared to the Frankenstein story. Personal Phd Engineering! Yet today, IVF is themed writing a common practice and personal statement phd engineering 4 percent of all babies are conceived through this procedure. This technology has lead to institutions research paper some of medicals other innovations like the personal, little “frosties” or frozen embryos. The first babies born from those frozen embryos arrived in the mid-1980’s (Gosden 27). Egg donation became possible, then intracytoplamisc sperm injection (ICSI) and now embryos that. women to have that choice. Though with great abilities there are always confronting issues that arise. Some issues that could arise are individuals that would attempt to essay about education system arabia exploit the personal, idea by creating a business of prostitution or slavery. A designer baby would not be viewed as human beings but rather be viewed as personal or public property for. people believe that when they hear the term designer baby, they imagine the image of two parents choosing and fixing their unborn child. “According to essay jefferson the Oxford English Dictionary, a designer baby is 'A baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics” (Buzzle.com, 2011, Designer para. 5).
Designer babies basically allow doctors to fix, alter, and personal adjust. families. Is it wrong to on thomas vs alexander hamilton want a perfect baby? Or should this technology be banned for personal statement good? I think that this topic is extremely relevant, especially to our new generations. We have all of this new technology right on the palm of out hands, and we have the privilege of doing whatever we want with it. The problem is when we don’t know the essay vs alexander, limits, when we are unable to separate what is appropriate or not and statement phd engineering we don’t consider the consequences. Designer babies are brought to essay on thomas jefferson hamilton us by new medical developments. taken as far as eradicating cancer in future generations. But what about the generations that are already here and are afflicted with such diseases? Do we just forget about these people and phd engineering pin our hopes on these genetically engineered babies?
Well there is woodland homework another side to this argument. As in the case of Zain Hasmi, a specially screened or manipulated sibling could be born through IVF for the purpose. or private school.” On the contrary, the writer states that this will cause the child’s freedom of action to be threatened by their parents. This in turn demeans parenthood and statement individuality. Fin-1 Finnish! As mentioned by Leon Kass, “to really produce the optimum baby, you’d have to turn procreation into manufacturing, which degrade parenthood.” Also, Yin Ren says that the effect of adding a gene or trait may cause unknown effects towards individuals and society. As the lifespan of people increases, there will be. Baby Not Pooping: When Should You Worry? Essay. It is personal statement normal to see some stools in the diaper everytime it is changed during this period. After the sixth week, some babies move their bowels less frequently. Do not worry if your child moves his bowels only once in a week.
If her stools are not dry and hard she is not constipated. Fin-1 Institutions Hopkins! She may produce loose stools with the consistency of pea soup and curds like cottage cheese, and this just means that she is getting the right amount of personal phd engineering foremilk (thin and watery milk with less fat) and hindmilk (richer. Theresa's organs would be killing her to save another; therefore, it would be wrong to research paper kill Theresa before she naturally dies in order to harvest her organs and save another child. Statement Phd Engineering! But is killing always wrong? And the fact that we all know that the baby is already dead count as killing? Medically.
Essay on support, A New Baby Changes Everything. That same month I decided to phd engineering take a pregnancy test myself and little did I know I was pregnant. I did not believe the pregnancy test one bit, a few years back I just had my heart set on essays on life, the fact that I could never carry a baby and accepted the disturbing news. That night I took the test my face lit up like the scoreboard at a rockets game and I jumped for joy. I even was to excited to sleep at all that night, the morning time had seemed so far away but once day broke I rushed to Wal-Mart to get another. Baby Boomers, the Driving Force Essay. employee in the future. J. Steven Niznik feels that, Baby boomers are taking control of the labor force in the new millennium. (Niznik 1). However, baby boomers know that they must keep their skills updated and statement fresh to compete with the younger work force. Successfully maintaining a career is an woodland junior homework help, ongoing process that involves the development of personal statement new skills and includes exploring new learning opportunities. Baby boomers believe that a quality education is all that is.
A Case for Genetically Modified Babies Essay. cell in the bodies of babies being born. I believe that being genetically modified is what's worth it in the end because whatever is modified is personal passed down to your children, which means that they would not have to essay have the personal statement phd engineering, procedure too. Once the process is done its done for good. The process is very detailed and specific. It involves the on life support, removal of materials in the mother’s eggs. Most of the process has to do with the personal, mothers eggs because it is what provides more for education system arabia the baby. The process is much. Essay on Factors to Consider Before and After Having a Baby. Without this oxygen, your baby may be born prematurely, stillborn, or have a low birth weight. Also, your first trimester of your pregnancy is the statement phd engineering, most pivotal point for your baby’s growth and development, because he or she is developing organs such as lungs and the heart.
Smoking during this time can be devastating to the baby’s health. If the thanksgiving writing paper, baby lives, most likely they will have behavioral problems, relatively low IQs, asthma, and more. Not to personal statement mention, smoking after your baby is born can be just as. may be the father, mother’s boyfriend, babysitter, or the mother (Tamparo Lewis, 2011, p. 257). Prevalence One thousand two hundred to one thousand four hundred children are likely to junior help be shaken each year according to the National Center of Shaken Baby Syndrome (Meskauskas et al, p. 326). But some resources say more than 50,000 cases of SBS each year are possible (Tamparo Lewis, 2011, p. 257). According to Smith (2003, p. 200), “Approximately one third exhibit little or no adverse effects, one. Premature Birth: The Life of a Premature Baby Essay example. Premature Baby Book, pages 7-8). Neonatologists are staffed in levels 2 and statement phd engineering 3. Level 1 may have a Neonatologist on staff but in most instances a pediatrician is available for the care of the infant.
Once released to go home, premature infants may have health issues that require specialty care at home for months and years to come. Fin-1 Research Paper! Equipment such as: Heart monitor, oxygen, nebulizer, braces for personal extremities, etc. On Thomas Hamilton! are sometimes required for in-home care. “A mother’s milk helps the phd engineering, baby grow by building. Essay on Should Parents be Allowed to paper Select the Sex of Their Baby? Preimplantation genetic diagnosis allows people to select the sex of the baby when using in vitro fertilization, there is 99.9% accuracy. Another method is called MicroSort which is statement phd engineering a dye technique that separates boy and about system in saudi arabia girl producing sperm. Once the gender of choice is selected it’s then placed in the uterus by artificial insemination. Ericsson method is discussed by personal phd engineering, Suzanne Leigh (2012) Choosing your baby's sex: What the scientists say. She states, “This technique, which has been around since. The Awakening, the Story of an Hour, and Desiree#x27;s Baby Essay. the sight of her husband but fail.
The resolution of the story consists of the medical examiner saying that she died of heart failure due to being overjoyed. Desiree’s Baby In the Exposition Madame Valmonde drives over to see Desiree and essay vs alexander hamilton her baby for the first time in a month, she remembers when Desiree herself was a baby. Her husband had found Desiree sleeping next to a pillar as he rode through the gateway of the Valmonde home in southern Louisiana eighteen years before. No one knew where. Personal! Baby Carrots: A Tremendous Success Story Essay. does everyone love baby carrots?
Baby carrots have been marketed very well. The target market is diverse. The carrots are a healthy snack and can help shed pounds. Support! On the personal, go, they are great for thanksgiving themed writing lunchboxes. Baby carrots are more aesthetically appealing to children and adults!
They are easy to consume, providing a crunchy sweet taste. Standardization is an important marketing technique for statement phd engineering any product. The standard size of each baby carrot and the polished outer surface make baby carrots visually. Manners of Welcoming a New Born Baby in Islam Essay. When the baby is born in a family it is taken to some pious person to do the tahnik, the system in saudi, idea behind that is the baby receives something sacred through its mouth from the lips and hand of a pious person. There are many benefits of the tahnik through medical and personal non-medical perspective. One is following the sunnah of the beloved Messenger Muhammad (pbuh). About Education System In Saudi Arabia! Second, the tahnik also exercise the muscles of the mouth and helps with the circulation of blood which is personal phd engineering brought by the movement of the jaws. How Marriage Is Presented in Desiree#x27;s Baby The Story of an Hour When he is happy, she is happy and when he is sad, she is an informal essay “miserable enough to die.” Desiree gives birth to a quadroon baby, quadroon meaning ? black which is enough to taint a person who has ? white and enough to personal call them black. On Life Support! Armand neglects her and statement the baby because he said, “that child is not white; it means that you are not white.” He accuses Desiree of having mixed blood and he blames her for the shame she has caused him, “Moreover, he no longer loved her because of the conscious injury. Essay about Dave Ramsey Baby Steps Personal. person or people in need.
Plus it makes you feel good to system in saudi know that you did good by impacting a person or people's lives by giving. When you give, people notice and a lot of times they will do what they can for you when you struggle. I really enjoyed the baby step system. Phd Engineering! To me it's like a set of laws that should be followed for people with an income. I really don't see a way that anyone could not benefit from. Designer Babies: Way Too Far from Perfection Essay. First, “designer babies” seek for a world of perfect individuals. This would allow only children with specific characteristics, which parents pre-selected, to be born. On other words, a “designer babies” society would be full of on life support perfect children, with a destiny already known, and this would lead us to discriminate the natural born ones. In a world of perfected children, the parents, assuming that they themselves are not artificially designed, might not have the same level of change to teach the child.
Essay on True Love Cannot Be Broken: Desiress#x27;s Baby by Kate Chopin. The love of a mother does not rely on time, almost two decades after Desiree’s arrival Madame Valdome still sees her daughter as an innocent part of the human race. The birth of Desiree’s baby symbolizes a new generation to personal their family as well as another person that will know the value of love. Chopin tries to give with enough information to let her audience know that Armand and Desiree share a passionate young love, “The passion that awoke in him that day, when he saw her at the gate, swept along. Fin-1 Finnish Paper Hopkins! Integrating Health Interventions for Women, Newborn Babies, and Children: a Framework for Action. and sanitation, and transport and communications) should be promoted • Development of personal human resources needs to adhere to a comprehensive approach from training to practice, including shifting of woodland homework help tasks to ensure e?ciency • Care for mothers, newborn babies, and children should, in statement principle, be free for poor clients at the point of provision • District health-management teams need support to strengthen their capacities to plan, cost, budget, implement, monitor, and evaluate interventions for maternal. Essay on Overview of Shaken Baby Syndrom AKA Abusive Head Trauma. “Shaken Baby Syndrome under-diagnosed, while others maintain that it is over-diagnosed. Whatever the true incidence of this problem is, considerable efforts need to be directed toward accurate diagnosis, effective therapy for its consequences and junior homework help ultimately prevention” (Evans, (2004), p.163). This is true because you want to make sure that you get the personal statement, right treatments for the injury that your child has. An Informal Essay! “Shaken Baby Syndrome has been postulated from the result of the efforts of acceleration-deceleration. Baby Boom Coming to statement Retirement Effect on Housing Demand in Canada. market.aspx Chart 3: Proportion of People Living in a Single-Detached Homes in 2011, by Age Cohort: Source: http://www.conferenceboard.ca/economics/hot_eco_topics/default/13-07-23/who_will_buy_the_baby_boomers_single-detached_homes.aspx The baby boom generation who helped increasing the housing sales in essay education in saudi the previous years will be part of the decrease in housing sales because seniors retire and settle down in one place for a long time and they do not want to change there house.
In chart number. works within the structure of the marketing mix and personal phd engineering applies to the country to which Organic Baby food would like to fin-1 finnish research hopkins export: the phd engineering, United States. Education System Arabia! Another factor that’s going to play a big role in the promotion of Organic Baby food is the image of the statement, country in the eyes of the importing country (United States). This factor is called the Influence of Country Image. The next thing that Organic Baby food would have to personally do with few executive team members is a business trip. This. Jefferson Hamilton! Because such a large number of the population will soon be in this demographic more effort will be needed to provide services that will make this aging group feel comfortable that their concerns are important and phd engineering that they have the information needed so they are making the right choices. More organizations will have to make sure that services are available to about education system arabia this aging community. because it will be through new programs to help the aging combat some of the debilitating effects of aging, or to phd engineering committing. behavioral issues have been also noted as the result of Shaken Baby Syndrome. Homework Help! It us also suggested that orbitofrontal brain damage due to Shaken Baby Syndrome early in life “perturbs behavioral regulatory mechanisms in general and impairs initiative and adaptation of social context (difficulty learning social rules) in particular” (Vannier, Toure, Vieux, Brugel, Cherignard, 2009).
It is personal statement easy to see how the horrendous violence of Shaken Baby Syndrome can cause traumatic brain injury in children. A. him that the baby was not white. He's a product of essay on thomas jefferson his time and surroundings - a “typical” south state man, who leads a cotton farm and perceives black people as second-class people. However, Madame Valmonde, is at some points ahead of her time. When Desiree wrote to her that the people were telling her that she was not white, she answered “My own Desiree: Come home to Valmonde; back to your mother who loves you. Come with your child.. Even though she gave birth to a “colored” baby, she still wishes. The Financial Impact of Medicare Rates on a Health Service Organization in Relation to Baby Boomers Retiring. financially as they face problems in personal meeting the needs of the uninsured baby boomers.
Therefore, health service organizations experience financial stress, and this affects health care delivery (Bankers Life and Casualty Company, Center for a Secure Retirement, January 2012). Also, the Medicare rates are too low to counter the increasing health demands of the baby boomers. What's An Informal Essay! In many health service organizations, a large number of nurses are baby boomers. The health care system experiences shortage of nurses. When I sat down on personal phd engineering, the couch beside my brother I just stared at the baby. She was so cute, her little eyes were closed and she had these tiny eyelashes that looked just perfect. Her nose was so petite it was like a little button; her cheeks had a dash of pink on them like a plum fresh off the tree. She had her lips puckered up and they were red and thanksgiving writing paper had a lot of shape to them. I drew my face close to hers to give her a kiss on personal phd engineering, the head.
She smelled so good and fresh. About System Arabia! I couldn’t help but smile, tears. Statement! There was no-one in sight! This untouched piece of earth was all his, all his… Chopin’s melody descended. He savoured the last rays of warm sunlight, the vision fading as the piece concluded with a soft cadence. A wave of sonorous applause followed, sharply breaking his reverie as he returned to what's an informal the grand, pretentious concert hall. Personal Statement! He bowed meekly before returning to the piano to perform Beethoven’s Pathetique, its dramatic fortes a stark contrast to Chopin’s delicate waltz. He poured anger into. Mari would be in her room becoming frustrated with her toys and then throwing an an informal essay, all-out fit. Neither Ponijao nor Bayar displayed this, yet both of them had significantly less items.
Bayar from Mongolia’s development, in my opinion was the personal, most interesting. He was being raised in on thomas hamilton a rural area that consisted of just his family (yes, they did show some of the personal, “neighbors” bud seeing how remote his farm was, it was not likely that they played a major role in on life his development.) Most of the phd engineering, time shown. Instructor Baby Massage Lesson Essay. Quiet alert babies are relaxed, calm, and happy. Babies in this state are ready to on life learn and socialize with everyone around them. Statement Phd Engineering! Stare contently at your face, follow your voice, and work hard to essay education system arabia interact and play with you. Infant cues: So that the personal statement phd engineering, baby recognise that it is themed writing paper time for massage we should begin all our massage sessions with a visual cues: Add a bit of oil massage in personal statement phd engineering our hands and rub them in front of her eyes and if the baby’s response is positive then we will undress the baby and begin. The Controversy of Designer Babies Essay. There are religious issues against genetic engineering. The issues are people believe that by genetically engineering your child you are trying to “play God.” The Christian views against themed paper, this include “that the modifying of statement phd engineering life is seen as “playing god” as god created life and people in institutions research his own image, to modify the statement, basic genetics would be suggesting that God was flawed.” However, there are some Christian views that think positively of genetic engineering.
They believe that genetic engineering is good. As always, the hallways appeared narrower and extremely long creating a huge sense of depth while the rooms, such as the living-quarters, appeared wide and support flat. The contrast between spaces plays an vital part in exhibiting suspense. The most dramatic scenes occured using a wide-angle lens in narrow spaces creating depth within the shot, such as in personal statement phd engineering a hallway when Rosemary is stumbling around after being drugged. The more serene scenes came when the frame appeared less. Not only should the clinic and education system in saudi arabia practitioner be considered, but perhaps most importantly, their success rates. Assisted Reproductive Technologies are without a question, incredible medical breakthroughs and they offer many options for treating infertility. Personal Statement! For some, this technology is the answer to woodland heartbreak of infertility, if they can afford it and if it successful.
The cost of these treatments can be exorbitant. A single IVF resulting in a successful pregnancy and delivery can cost anywhere. Cleopatra tried to stop the poisons snake but couldn’t and died. Cleopatra’s mother’s name was Cleopatra v tryphaena. Statement! Cleopatra’s name has been used 7 times in her tribe. Her Mom , 2 big sister, little sis and her aunty. She was the third child of Ptolemy XII amulets. Cleopatra had three sisters and two brothers.
Both of her brothers help Cleopatra rule Egypt before the earlier deaths Ptolemy XIII died (44 BCE) droned through a fight with Julius Cesar Cleopatra killed Ptolemy XIV in (47 BCE) herself. However, she now had to an informal essay keep Elizabeth for two days before the adoption would take place. She had no clue how to raise or tend to an infant this was no easy task for J.C. Few examples of being clueless, resorted to using tape to keep diaper on when she failed on “several” attempts, gave her a bowl of statement phd engineering linguine to support eat, which let to a huge mess, as well as spraying the infant with cleaning solution. However, things did start to improve and she was catching on to some reassuring attempts that worked. Making Better People: Germline Engineering and Designer Babies. Personal! It is Germline engineering makes the on life, idea of phd engineering Designer Babies possible. Finnish Institutions Research Hopkins! Whether this practice is morally and statement phd engineering ethically acceptable is a topic which is thanksgiving themed paper often debated. In an personal statement phd engineering, article entitled “Designer People” by Sally Deneen, a microbiologist from Princeton University expressed his thoughts on junior homework help, what would happen if gene selection becomes a common part of the reproductive process. Lee M. Silver, says he can see a day centuries from now, where there are two separate species of human beings; there are. She switches from urging the society to think through in vitro fertilization to personally saying that she’s against it. “But as a woman, a feminist, and a biologist, I am opposed to personal using it and developing it further.” Hubbard uses a shift in tone, from appealing to what in essence the society should do to homework help what she would do because of personal who she is.
This shift in tone is very effective in that now, the essay about education, audience has a clear understanding of personal Hubbard’s viewpoint. Hubbard goes on to use Division and. Baby Mafia: Human Trafficking Essay. However, many people falsely believe that most human trafficking victims are sold into sexual exploitation when, in truth, they are not. According to Feingold, a study done in 2005 by the International Labour Organization found that out of the estimated 9.5 million victims in Asia forced into servitude, less than ten percent are trafficked for sexual exploitation (26). There are, in finnish paper fact, additional subdivisions of trafficking other than sexual exploitation that a victim can be forced to personal phd engineering take part. Finnish Paper Hopkins! Theme of Race in Desiree#x27;s Baby Essay. According to the law in statement that era his mother was considered to thanksgiving themed writing belong to the race that was cursed by the brand of slavery (108). Statement! In addition to his knowledge of his mother’s heritage and ethnicity, his dark skin pigmentation was a constant reminder of his true identity. The author described Armand’s features as dark and handsome [page 106]. Deep inside he always knew he was an octaroon.
The author writes about a letter that Armand found in his drawer while searching through Desiree’s.
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? French Essay Dans mon ecole de reve, nous aurions un studio pour mixer de la musique parce que je trouve cela tres agreable. A . l'heure actuelle j'ai beaucoup de tests pour les quels je dois etudier. L'annee prochaine, je vais faire mes GCSE et je vais continuer a etudier l'anglais, les mathematiques, la biologie, la physique, la chimie et la religion parce qu'ils sont obligatoires. Je dois aussi etudier l'EPS, PSHEE et education civique. Les autres matieres suivantes: l'histoire, le francais.
France , Trigraph 1141 Words | 3 Pages. The French legal system essay Britain is about a common law country in which the system of justice depends heavily on personal custom and . precedent. By contrast, France is a civil law country where the legal system is based entirely on a body of an informal written law commonly called the phd engineering, Code of Law. This translates into less reliance on case law, no straight precedent rule, and to essays on life, simplify matters, no need in contracts for providing for every single occurrence, which means that a standard agreement might well be ten. Civil law , Codification , Common law 1272 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Impact of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen on personal statement phd engineering the French Revolution Course: HIST 1801E Major Issues In World History . By: Andrew Grossman- 250790710 Professor: Dr. Reid-Maroney Due date: October 15, 2014 Chapter 16: “Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes” Document 16.1: The French Revolution and the “Rights of Man” German philosopher and jefferson revolutionist Karl Marx once said, 1“It is not history which uses men as a means of personal phd engineering achieving - as if it were an. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the fin-1 paper hopkins, Rights of Man and of the Citizen , Democracy 1343 Words | 6 Pages. Some of the following content has been altered to maintain anonymity. MSU standards for intellectual honesty apply to personal statement phd engineering, scholarship application . Essays? essays . Essays copied in whole or in personal statement phd engineering part from these samples or any other applicant’s work will be rejected and may result in disciplinary action. Essay #1 Score: 4.0 For as long as I can remember I’ve known what I wanted to do with my life.
Science has always been a passion of essays on life support mine, and medicine in particular has interested me for some time. Personal Phd Engineering? Dedicating. College , Experience , German language 1196 Words | 4 Pages. revolutions was the French Revolution because it came with many consequences and influences. Nothing else like this had ever happened this . powerful to change the political status quo. Many people surprisingly don’t know how the French Revolution started but through this paper we will be learning more about it. Essay? Starting in 1789 through 1794 the people of France dethroned and arrested their king Louis XVI, took apart his monarchy, and executed him, his wife, and thousands of nobles.
The French people then. Demographics of France , Estates of the personal, realm , France 1127 Words | 4 Pages. EssayForum Unanswered  / Urgent  Home / Speeches / 'Good morning friends!'; Introducing Myself - college speech . answers: 2 Sarath Kumar Oct 31, 2013, 11:19am #1 Introducing Myself - college speech Good morning friends! My name is Sarath Kumar. I'm going to introduce myself.I have born and grown up in Vizianagaram and essays I'm studying first year BSC computer science in personal phd engineering this prestigeous college, Vizianagaram. As for my family, I've just one brother older than me. My father. 1995 singles , Attention , Employment 746 Words | 3 Pages. ?1.
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754–1763) The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was the last of education system in saudi a series of great colonial wars that . stretched for almost a hundred years and disrupted settlements throughout North America. It marked the end of the French empire in North America and the beginning of statement English domination of the continent. It also emphasized the thanksgiving paper, differences between Englishmen and colonists and laid the groundwork for the drive toward independence, culminating in the American Revolution (1775–1783). Appalachian Mountains , Canada , French and Indian War 1384 Words | 3 Pages. the incentive to go against the monarchy. Personal Statement? Historical evidence suggests that Marie Antoinette betrayed France in essays on life support the soul aim to bring back absolute monarchy. . Personal Phd Engineering? Apparently, she sent details of French military plans to the Austrians. This claim is supported by Source 2, where Marie Antoinette “had discussed French military strategic nuggets of vs alexander military information in letters to Axel von Fersen”; it showed the monarchy as traitors to personal, the Revolution. This put Marie in a bad light with her family declaring. Absolute monarchy , Constitutional monarchy , Head of junior homework state 1420 Words | 4 Pages. Causes and Outcomes of the French Revolution Essay.
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College , Graduation , High school 1504 Words | 5 Pages. Ariana Herbert Modern European Revolutions Essay # 1 The French Revolution (1789-1799) was one of the most influential . social and radical movements in European and modern history. Like all revolutions there were many successes and many failures. What's Essay? But with all those positive and negatives, could we honestly say that the French Revolution was a success? Did the radicals come to common ground? With these and other factors all playing major roles, especially as the Revolution became more radical. Age of Enlightenment , Belgium , Declaration of the phd engineering, Rights of Man and of the Citizen 1158 Words | 4 Pages.
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Abidjan , Ancient Olympic Games , Chelsea F.C. 606 Words | 2 Pages. Developments in French Art changed the older attitudes regarding the happy mother and hamilton the ideals of the family. During the eighteenth century, . the enlightenment figures began to develop new ideals on the happy mother and family. Evolving attitudes and developments were seen in the family setting, which brought on new ideals in the French society. The negative view that marriages portrayed was then seen as a blessed and heavenly sacrament. New ideals regarding children were also developed, as they.
Age of Enlightenment , Conjugal family , Family 1377 Words | 4 Pages. Chen Hao World History 9, Period 4 1-I-13 First Draft of French Revolution Essay Why was there a revolution in France in . Statement? 1789? The French Revolution was a imaginary train that changed the direction of thought in jefferson vs alexander Europe and also showed the personal phd engineering, end of the “Modern Age”, which is essay on thomas vs alexander hamilton called the Ancien Regime in France, and showed the beginning of a “Contemporary Age”. Phd Engineering? The absolutism of the essays, Ancien Regime was the seed that planted the fury of the people in France and it was the main reason that started. Age of Enlightenment , American Revolutionary War , France 1545 Words | 5 Pages. ?How far was the russo-Japanese war responsible for the outbreak in personal phd engineering Russia 1905? The Russo-Japanese war took place in 1904 to 1905 and thanksgiving began because of . both Russia and Japans desire to expand their borders into places such as Korea. During this war, Russia was humiliated and had many defeats from a country which were considered to be inferior. The defeat of this war humiliated the statement, people of essays support Russia and personal phd engineering therefore lost confidence in Nicholas II. Russia’s defeat in the war also caused problems in.
Kazakhstan , Latvia , Russia 1309 Words | 3 Pages. What is a comparative essay ? A comparative essay asks that you compare at least two (possibly more) items. These items will . differ depending on woodland help the assignment. You might be asked to compare positions on an issue (e.g., responses to personal phd engineering, midwifery in Canada and the United States) theories (e.g., capitalism and communism) figures (e.g., GDP in in saudi the United States and Britain) texts (e.g., Shakespeare’s Hamletand Macbeth) events (e.g., the Great Depression and the global financial crisis of 2008–9) . Communism , Comparison , Essay 980 Words | 4 Pages. Napoleon Essay: Was Napoleon an enlightened leader who preserved the French Revolution or a military dictator who betrayed its ideals? Napoleon Essay : Was Napoleon an enlightened leader who preserved the French Revolution or a military dictator who betrayed its . ideals? Napoleon’s rule eleven-year career from 1804 to personal statement, 1815 as the Emperor of the French allowed him to accomplish many things, some beneficial to fin-1 research, France, others betraying the basic ideals formed by phd engineering, the revolution.
When closely analyzed, it is clear that his positive work greatly outweighs his negatives’. Napoleon ruled using the enlightened ideas of equality, freedom. Age of essay about education system in saudi Enlightenment , Christianity , Europe 1205 Words | 4 Pages. The French Revolution: Why and how did it start? What were major events that took place during it?
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The first few attempts at what's essay a French braid may take as long as twenty-five to. Finger , Fingers , French braid 617 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lakshya Seth AP Euro 1/26/15 Essay on French Revolution The French Revolution was an important time in . French History. Watching the statement phd engineering, colonies in the US succeed in their revolution, the French were inspired and desired similar success. Fin-1 Finnish Hopkins? The French citizens, especially the peasants, were tired of the French economy and the way it was run and statement phd engineering decided to revolt. This revolt was met with strict force and oppression from the government. The French revolution took a radical turn because of the class. Age of Enlightenment , Capital punishment , French Revolution 441 Words | 2 Pages. Riley: Republic and French Revolution. full credit. (50 points) The French Revolution began less than two decades after the American Revolution. In many ways, the American . experience was an inspiration for the citizens of France.
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French government and citizens is very strict and . Finnish Institutions Hopkins? firm about protecting their language as an personal statement phd engineering example at the motion pictures, people watch the movies after doubling. France also have many regional languages, such as Breton and Alsatian. At the what's an informal, southwest of France people speak a language which is completely unrelated to French which is Basque Language. Religion In France freedom of thought and personal statement phd engineering of religions. Culture , Education , French people 1320 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptive Essay My nose is overwhelmed with the smell of hairspray, baby powder, and a fruity perfume. There are too many girls in here, . all struggling and fighting for a space near the mirror that covers the junior homework help, entire back wall. It’s dim in here, but it’s a good kind of dim, almost calming. The only light is coming from the round vanity bulbs that line the top of the mirrors, making it so that the fluorescents don’t impair what natural light reveals.
I make my way to personal statement, the red lockers on the right. Cosmetics , Hair iron , Hairstyle 1441 Words | 4 Pages. French and Haitian Revolution Comparisons. examples of when people stood up for their rights and revolted are the French Revolution and the Haitian Revolution. About Education? These revolts are loosely . connected, as many say that the Haitian Revolution was inspired by personal phd engineering, the French Revolution. The French Revolution started in 1789 and continued all the way until 1814. The people in France had discontent with the classes, as 98% of the French population was living in serious poverty. The French people revolted, and after two years, they finally got rid of the monarchy. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French people 1541 Words | 3 Pages. French Revolution Essay . On Life Support? The French Revolution came about through many causes that included financial problems and . food scarcity.
France was in personal phd engineering financial crisis due to their participation in the seven years war and American Revolution. By 1789, France encountered bankruptcy because of the country’s indiscriminate inequitable system of thanksgiving writing paper taxation. France at the time was a nation where society was dominated by class. The clergy and nobility were exempted from taxation leaving peasants who were barely. France , French Revolution , Guillotine 451 Words | 2 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of personal statement phd engineering view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of fin-1 finnish institutions paper hopkins elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Personal Statement? Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages.
American and French Revolutions Essay. American and French Revolutions Essay The American and French Revolutions are both very similar and are both . Support? very different. They both had many events that led them to seek independence and they both reflected the enlightenment. Statement? They also had different things that happened such as social and economic trouble was a main cause in thanksgiving themed the French Revolution and that in the American Revolution the personal statement, people wanted to start a new country. There were many events that caused American colonists to seek independence. Age of Enlightenment , American Revolution , French Revolution 771 Words | 2 Pages. ? “Why French Mothers Are Superior” Most parents would agree, what it is a full time job to have children and it is hard, particularly when . they are growing up.
Lots of parents recognize the paper, situation at the dinner table, when the kids wouldn’t sit still and statement phd engineering eat their food as well as the time at the supermarket, then they are begging for candy and sweet stuff. What's Essay? And when bedtime comes you will have the endless fights about phd engineering, brushing teeth and going to sleep. These problems are described in thanksgiving writing the essay. Appeal , Essay , French language 946 Words | 2 Pages. Andrew Conklin French Revolution DBQ 10/26/14 Mr.Dobson French Revolution DBQ Questions Doc 1 . Personal? A: One of the causes of the an informal, French revolution was from the absolute ruling of Louis XVI Doc2 A: One way that this graph shows that it contributed to the French revolution was that it only shows that commoners estate were taxed while the other two weren’t. Personal Phd Engineering? Doc3. A: The peasants were dissatisfied because they were pushed to do an excessive amount . Age of Enlightenment , Democracy , France 1406 Words | 6 Pages. faced with a particular type of new job.” Narrate - When my grandma found my room messy she’ll cleaned it immediately and to procrastinate it more. . Describe - a negative attitude * Brings idleness * Postponing of essay about education system in saudi work Definition Essay Some saying said that, “The best way to get something done is to begin.” Nowadays, procrastination is one of the major problems of personal statement some of the people. An Informal? Based on the web, it refers to personal phd engineering, the act of replacing high-priority actions with tasks of lower. Causality , Definition , Procrastination 1127 Words | 4 Pages.
probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is writing a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). Statement Phd Engineering? English and literature teachers use them on on thomas vs alexander a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of personal statement phd engineering classes. Essay System Arabia? Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. FRENCH REVOLUTION ASSIGNMENT ONE Modern European History Jonah Haines 1293 Mr. Potts . Statement? iPrivilege not poverty caused the writing, French Revolutioni To what extent do you agree? The French Revolution was essentially a class war between the emerging Bourgeoisie against the Privileged class, this meant they saw the statement, Privileged class as the only hurdle between themselves and equality within French society.
Many of the ideas they pursued stemmed from. Bourgeoisie , French Revolution , Middle class 2250 Words | 7 Pages. Personal Response Essay - The Loons G. Laracas Professor DePasquale English - 1A 07 October 2008 Personal Response Essay “The Loons” I’ve chosen to do my personal . response essay on the short story “The Loons,” because in essays on life support a way I can sort of personal phd engineering relate to the main character Piquette Tonnerre. I felt that Margaret Laurence did an exceptional job by choosing the appropriate tone for the story because I can honestly say that I could feel the alienation that Piquette must of felt, during her time of living, in woodland homework help a cruel society.
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Please let me now the results of trying the steps above. Any further questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 2. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thank you for the response. I re-installed the drivers in the order that you listed, however there has been no change to the behaviour. The NUC will still not wake from sleep after any length of time putting it to statement sleep with the remote. (0) (0) . 3. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. raymondjpg: Thank you very much for letting us know that information. At this point we will do further research on this subject. As soon as I get a possible resolution for this problem I will post all the details on this thread. Any questions, please let me know.
(0) (0) . 4. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. (0) (0) . 5. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from thanksgiving themed paper S3 not working properly. raymondjpg: You are welcome. I just received an update on the research we are doing, could you please remove the phd engineering, driver from the what's an informal, USB IR receiver and try our build-in driver? And then, please verify that you see the driver installed on device manager: Any questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 6. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thank you for personal statement phd engineering, the response. The driver that you are asking me to install is the same driver third in the list that you asked me to install in what's an informal essay, the second post in this thread.
This time I tried uninstalling the ITE package both from uninstall or change a program in personal phd engineering, control panel and the ITECIR driver in device manager. I also uninstalled the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver that always appear in device manager when scanning for about education in saudi arabia, hardware changes. I am not certain but take it that there are two instances because one is for the inbuilt transceiver and the other for the RC6 USB transceiver that I use with my Harmony remote. On reinstalling the ITE package I am then presented with the phd engineering, ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver as before in device manager. I then noted what was in in device manager for an installation of Windows 7 in a NUC6i5SYH. What's. The exact same combination of USB Consumer IR transceiver and personal statement, Harmony remote as in the NUC7i5BNH successfully wake the NUC6i5SYH from sleep every time without fail. Finnish Institutions Paper. However in the case of the NUC6i5SYH I see ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) and personal, two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in essay on thomas hamilton, device manager. I tried installing the driver ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) in the NUC7i5BNH using the Have Disk option, and phd engineering, ended up with an on thomas vs alexander, entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) along with an entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in device manager. Statement Phd Engineering. I then tried uninstalling the entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) along with the junior help, driver, but on rebooting the statement phd engineering, entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) had reappeared.
The NUC7i5BNH then started misbehaving, wouldn't boot properly to Windows and eventually fell back to Advanced Startup Options where I was able to reinstall a working backup image of Windows 10, Thus I am back where I started with with the ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver as before in essays support, device manager. Might this mean that the issue of personal not being able to wake from sleep in the NUC7i5BNH is related more to inadequacies with the bios than the ITE drivers? (0) (0) . 7. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. raymondjpg : Thank you very much for sharing those details. In order to provide the thanksgiving writing, most accurate response to your inquiry, we will continue with our research, and as soon as I get any results, I will post them on this thread. Any questions, please let me know.
(0) (0) . 8. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. If the Consumer IR is disabled under devices in the bios then the ITECIR driver does not appear in device manager, and there is personal phd engineering only one instance of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in device manager. The USB Consumer IR transceiver still works in all respects except for resume from sleep. This reinforces my conclusion that the resume from sleep issue is not related to the ITE drivers. (0) (0) . 9. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. I am not from Intel but I have past experience with various NUC and essays on life, IR; I will get your specific NUC model tomorrow but don't plan to use it with IR.
I am curious why you seem to be complicating things by installing an additional USB IR transceiver device into USB, rather than just using the personal statement phd engineering, one built-in to the NUC. What's. The drivers that Intel presumably discuss with you are for the built-in IR. The built-in IR should work RC6 remote, as long as you are aware of various potential settings. When you have the multiple transceivers installed, I would wonder how they would be expected to know that a toggle is meant for one rather than both, etc. If you have one device/driver (the built-in Intel), the BIOS settings would definitely be required for power on from the statement, power off state such as S5. That is on thomas hamilton a setting which Intel seemed to phd engineering create with an early NUC which I never liked myself (so I was glad when they allowed disabling it). Settings for waking from education arabia sleep such as S3 might appear in BIOS but be sure to also consider any settings about that in the device driver (such as Properties-Power-allow this device to wake), because device driver is normally what seems likely to control that. I don't think this applies to you but If the IR isn't working at all in Windows (but you have the personal phd engineering, driver installed), then you may need to investigate a registry setting depending on thanksgiving themed what ID the remote control is set to - this situation was common with some Xbox remote in past messages here. And again I don't think this applies to you but if you get unexpected power changes in personal, a NUC, that was sometimes happening from use of unrelated IR remote in woodland help, same room such as certain TV models or maybe even the statement phd engineering, pause button of MS remotes. The main point of my message was all of that background in woodland junior help, case it helps troubleshooting.
It is statement certainly hard for on life, me to personal guess how things would operate in your situation with two IR receivers. But perhaps your particular situation is that you are depending on your USB IR receiver (rather than the education arabia, built-in), and the USB ports are in some setting which is statement phd engineering disabling their power during sleep, and therefore there is no way for your external USB IR receiver to be seeing the attempted resume request. You and woodland junior homework, Intel engineers may not have reached that conclusion because of mistaken assumptions about internal vs external IR receivers. (0) (0) . 10. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thanks for your interest. 1. Personal Statement Phd Engineering. The reason I am using an essays on life, additional USB IR transceiver device is twofold. Statement Phd Engineering. The first is an informal essay that the NUC is in an Akasa fanless case and access to the the inbuilt IE transceiver is restricted by the case; and the second is that the NUC sits behind the top of a TV so that a USB IR transceiver device which sits out from the case is personal better situated to receive IR signals reflected off the help, ceiling. 2. I have now disabled the personal statement phd engineering, inbuilt IR device in the bios. There is now no risk of any confusion with multiple transceivers installed.
3. Junior Homework. With the inbuilt IR device disabled, the USB IR transceiver device still functions perfectly in every respect except for wake from sleep. 4. Before I disabled the statement, inbuilt IR device, the USB IR transceiver device was also functioning perfectly in essays support, every way except for personal phd engineering, wake from about sleep. 5. In a Skylake NUC with both inbuilt and personal, USB IR transceiver devices installed, there is on thomas vs alexander hamilton no confusion between devices, and the USB IR transceiver device also functions perfectly in every way including wake from sleep . 6. I had speculated that the USB IR transceiver device might be suffering from USB ports having powered down during sleep, but in another thread on statement this forum. If that is the case then the issue is still with the bios, not with the ITE driver. I agree that Intel might not have come to this conclusion yet. I have heard nothing from them about this issue for more than two weeks now. (0) (0) . 11. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thanks for what's an informal essay, the clarification. My NUC7i5BNH arrived today but the case was bent above the heat sink fin hole so I am waiting on exchange.
Another thread says that any settings about personal statement USB power are for modes deeper than sleep rather than affecting sleep. If possible you should still try to find any device for your IR/remote and check Properties-Power Management to make sure they seem reasonable. By reasonable I mean that if there is an actual device it should be allowed to wake the computer, and the interface should probably not be allowed to be turned off to thanksgiving paper save power. If you have an optical mouse (not mechanical) maybe try plugging it into that USB port and see if moving the mouse wakes from personal statement sleep. Jefferson. On some of personal statement phd engineering my PC that doesn't work (because the mouse does not have enough power) but clicking the button on the mouse works (because it does not require such power). If moving USB optical mouse does not wake from sleep, I doubt the external IR could wake from sleep (until proper setting is found to supply power to USB during sleep and/or for USB devices to what's an informal allow wake from sleep). BIOS USB settings may affect various devices. BIOS IR settings and ITE driver presumably affect only the built-in ITE device, and when those are specifically mentioned in the conversation I would suggest responding with clarification that you gave (using external USB IR because of blockage to personal statement phd engineering internal IR sensor). (0) (0) . 12. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. 1. Institutions Research. Power settings for the USB infrared transceiver are set to allow this device to wake the computer.
2. Power settings for the HID entry for Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver are unchecked for turn off device to save power. 3. Optical USB mouse with setting to not allow this device to wake the computer can immediately wake the computer with left mouse click. I interpret that to mean that the left mouse click is immediately registered in the bios. 4. Personal Statement Phd Engineering. Next time Intel responds I will aim to clarify that I am focusing on essay on thomas jefferson the USB infrared transceiver, and what my USB device power settings are. (0) (0) . 13. Phd Engineering. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly.
Raymond said: Optical USB mouse with setting to not allow this device to wake the computer can immediately wake the computer with left mouse click. I interpret that to mean that the left mouse click is immediately registered in the bios. I mentioned optical mouse because I think it requires more power for the optical portion (including detection of movement) which might not be supplied over USB during sleep. I mentioned mouse click as something which doesn't need as much power. My point was that although mouse click might always wake from fin-1 sleep (regardless of personal power over USB), it would be interesting to find out if optical mouse movement on that same USB port wakes computer from finnish institutions paper hopkins sleep (or not). If movement does not wake, then there may be same underlying problem as USB IR wake (except if they have different Properties-Power settings for phd engineering, those devices). If so, I keep thinking about some power-related USB setting in the BIOS (not to be confused with IR settings in the BIOS). All my NUCs are using Bluetooth kb/mouse so I cannot easily look through my Visual BIOS setting screens (and they would not be exact same as yours since mine are currently older models). Hopefully you haven't selected Deep S4/S5 (I'll have to double-check that sometime on my machine which fails to paper hopkins wake on optical mouse movement).
(0) (0) . 14. Phd Engineering. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. OK I should have added that mouse movement does not wake the computer, only mouse click. I have selected CIR wake from S4/S5 as well as from S3, and I am sure that I have tried disabling wake from S4/S5 with the same result - CIR will not wake PC from S3.
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Personal Statement Why I m an Engineer - University of Cincinnati
95 theses rap yale In late August 2015, two pastors and five elders from the Early Rain Reformed Church 1 in Chengdu, Sichuan, signed a document entitled #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; an article that was accessed over thirty-eight thousand times in the first six months of its posting online [ 1 ]. The resemblance to Martin Luther#x2019;s act of five hundred years earlier is not incidental, and while the hubris might bemuse, the document can be seen as a milestone of house church belief, broadcasting its challenge to the state and to the state-registered Protestant church in China. Statement Phd Engineering! Luther#x2019;s first posting of theses in mid-1517 had very little effect. What's An Informal Essay! It is too early to personal statement phd engineering judge the significance of essays on life support, this new statement in church history, but the fiery, authoritative language, the standing of its lead author within the house church movement and the growing import of the Reformed (Calvinist) sector of the Chinese church, mean it would be impolitic to dismiss this as a stunt of mimicry. Where Luther set out to dispute the nature of repentance and salvation, and question the Pope#x2019;s authority to issue indulgences to remit wrong, the Chengdu theses address a series of topics around sovereignty and authority as these pertain to God, the personal statement, church, the what's essay, government and the individual. There has been much written on government relations with religious bodies in China, and others have considered the nature of the newly resurgent Calvinist churches in China as political or socio-cultural entities, but there has been little study of their theology. 2 This article examines three of the most controversial aspects of the 2015 document: its analysis of church#x2013;state relations, its rejection of the phd engineering, #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of Christianity, and finnish hopkins the excoriation of the state-registered church. These three are intricately linked, and derive from a particular reading of the bible, church tradition, and the role of statement phd engineering, conscience. The article focuses on church#x2013;state relations, showing how perspectives on the state church and what's an informal essay sinicization stem from the same argument, and personal how #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses#x201D; develops out of pastor Wang Yi#x2019;s earlier writings and on thomas jefferson his reading of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Reformed thought. We begin, however, with Luther. 2. From Wittenberg to West China. Why would a Calvinist pastor emulate Luther in personal posting 95 theses on an internet portal?
Was it a clarion call to essay jefferson vs alexander revolution, or something more akin to Luther#x2019;s set of propositions for debate? A brief comparison of the two acts and their authors serves as an introduction to the context and theology of the Chinese document. The lead pastor of the Early Rain church, Wang Yi (b. Phd Engineering! 1973), is a prolific author and thanksgiving themed writing well-known spokesperson and commentator on the house churches in China, with strong connections to Chinese churches in North America. A former law professor, Wang has been a pastor in Sichuan since 2011, and has a robust media presence through his film reviews and writings in statement the secular press, as well as web pages and micro-blog. These latter host theological discussion threads as well as sermons and articles, and on thomas jefferson hamilton his published volumes (with mainland and Taiwanese presses, as well as self-published works beyond the purview of the censor) include an statement phd engineering, examination of constitutionalism, a study of the house church movement, essays on essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton, Christian faith and volumes of statement, poetry, film reviews, edited interviews and sermons. 3 The #x201C;new urban house-churches#x201D; that Wang represents are characterized by jefferson hamilton, intellectual discourse and a mission for creating an personal, open, #x201C;above ground#x201D; church that interacts with society. Their demographic, stance and outlook are quite different to the predominantly rural house church of the late twentieth century. Congregations are well-educated, young, and media-aware ([ 7 ], pp.
189#x2013;90). Conversion data speaks not of healing miracles as in what's an informal rural church surveys of the 1980s and 1990s, but of a quest for meaning among young elites whose spiritual need is understood as a release from individualism and the vacuity of rampant consumerism. Statement Phd Engineering! For such believers, Wang Yi holds out woodland junior homework help, a message bridging intellectual thought and political action, charity work and phd engineering justice ([ 4 ], p. 109). Wang Yi has framed much of his theological thought over the past decade within Calvin#x2019;s (or Calvinist) categories of discussion, although the jefferson vs alexander hamilton, overlap with Lutheran ideas is statement, evident, whether in the language of two kingdoms or an Augustinian anthropology. The questions why emulate Luther? And why now? Invoke a wider context, and parallels between the two eras and authors are worth pondering. Wang Yi shares a good degree of common cause with Martin Luther as a person and a thinker, which sits alongside a general reformed heritage of Lutheran insight (Wang takes sola scriptura and justification by faith as axiomatic). If the Holy Roman Empire of the sixteenth century experienced significant political and on life support ecclesial tension, with contorted relations between imperial and local politics, church and personal phd engineering culture, as well as serious questions over ecclesial funding, papal prerogatives and essay about in saudi arabia cultic revivals, the church in China is currently facing a similar array of tensions, fueling its charged thinking.
The Holy Roman Empire and the limitations of papal authority#x2014;spiritual and personal phd engineering regnant#x2014;are met, for Wang, in the party-state and essay the Three-Self Patriotic Movement. Like Martin Luther, Wang writes across a range of genres for an avid audience of partisan readers. Statement! The writings of both Luther and Wang received immediate national and international scrutiny, and both are able popularizers, writing in an intelligible vernacular and utilizing popular media (whether wood block images or magazines 4 ) to disseminate views. At the time of their thesis writing, each led the essay on thomas vs alexander, busy life of the early middle-aged: teaching, writing, defending contested views, acting as pastor/priest. Both have scholarly and practical interests in history and the law: mining church history extensively and taking recourse in the law when challenged (canon law for Luther; the Chinese constitution for statement Wang). Just as Martin Luther#x2019;s theology developed across lecture series, Wang#x2019;s theology has evolved over finnish, time. Phd Engineering! Many of Luther#x2019;s ideas resonate in Wang#x2019;s faith: from beliefs on church and thanksgiving paper state, to grace, to the need for discipline and obedience in churches. In his thinking on authority, Wang follows Luther in holding that no ruler enjoys power unless God wills it, and echoes the phd engineering, careful thought linking nation and church politics seen in the revolutionary manifestoes of 1520 [ 9 ]. Wang emulates Luther in prizing the keys to Heaven as the true treasure of the church (Luther thesis #60; Chengdu theses #55, 62, 67), and takes from writing paper, Luther and his heirs an abhorrence towards any confusion of the Kingdom of God with the Kingdom of the World, and a firm belief in phd engineering ecclesial things for the ecclesial. At the heart of education system, Luther#x2019;s writing was a critique of the church that was deeply pastoral in implication: what happens when the apostolic successors betray their evangelical vocation? ([ 10 ], p. 49)#x2014;this is a core question for Wang of the state church, and argued in equally passionate terms. Romans 13 was a crucial text for Luther (and Calvin), and is a passage to which Wang returns repeatedly over the course of his writings [ 11 ]. Personal! In method, the two sets of theses differ.
Luther#x2019;s #x201C;95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences#x201D; cohere around one central theme, which proceeds logically from step to step, creating in sum a sketch of the world at the time and pinpointing its wrongs and falsities. Luther#x2019;s disputation is an invitation to argument, a gauntlet, and not a definitive statement of belief; it provoked an actual disputation of the gathered learned. Essay Hamilton! By contrast, although the Early Rain church document invites response, it reads more credally, and Wang#x2019;s trial has been virtual. There are significant differences too in approach: despite his attacks on the Roman Catholic church and the #x201C;far-fetched decrees#x201D; of the pontiff, Luther held that #x201C;by schism and contempt nothing can be mended#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. 32) and statement chose reform from within for as long as was possible, unlike Wang#x2019;s position on fin-1 research paper hopkins, the state-registered church. Personal Phd Engineering! It is an informal, reasonable to phd engineering infer, however, that detailed comparison with Luther#x2019;s theology was not the intention of the Chinese church leaders. It is the on life support, symbolism of Luther#x2019;s life and action at a time of great turbulence in church life that inspires. Luther#x2019;s steadfastness and self-belief, even to martyrdom, is the model being held up to the Chinese house church. In God#x2019;s war, as Luther wrote, we need #x201C;beware of thinking Christ will achieve things in the earth quietly and softly, when He fought with his own blood#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. 81). Wang#x2019;s rhetoric and personal phd engineering life experience shadow Luther#x2019;s: in believing adamantly that the fight is of God, in what's determination and stance for #x201C;truth,#x201D; in willingness to face trial or prison, and in cleaving to the Word of God as the source for action and knowledge. The great symbolic and spiritual truth of personal statement, protest against church and worldly powers is captured in the theses, whether protesting the degradation of temporal power in the ruling acts of the Chinese Party State or of spiritual power in the papacy. It is notable that the language of both men against detractors hardens over time, whether in Luther#x2019;s lament questioning whether the Pope was the Antichrist ([ 12 ], p. 170) or in the Early Rain church#x2019;s denunciation of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement as an #x201C;Antichrist movement#x201D; (#76).
Luther brought significant change to the theology of the woodland, sector of the church catholic that chose to follow him: from personal, a reduction in the number of sacraments to a new understanding on transubstantiation to support the assertion that church Councils may err#x2014;but has Reformed house church theology in China lived up to the promise signified by its posting of 95 theses? Church leaders have for some time regarded the new urban house church as a prophetic development. Wang Yi and Liu Tongsu see it as forming a new stage in house church history, taking over from the rural house church as the center of Chinese mission, in what they characterize as the Chinese church#x2019;s own #x201C;post-apostolic#x201D; age, as the church moves from an era of personal experience to one of theorization and phd engineering forming structures ([ 7 ], p. 112). The strategic importance of the urban church is, moreover, national: God wants, Liu and Wang boldly argue, to renew the whole of mainstream Chinese culture through the woodland junior homework, urban house church ([ 7 ], p. 206). If the development of the urban house church thus represents a turning point in Chinese church history, does the publication of the 95 theses represent a new, bolder claim? This article suggests that the personal statement, document both continues the prophetic understanding of the church (it is, after all, entitled #x201C; Reaffirming our Stance on the house Churches: 95 Theses#x201D;), but also expands it to a new horizon. The handing over jefferson vs alexander hamilton, of the baton to statement phd engineering the urban churches represented a transfer of energy within the broader house church, while the 95 theses stake a claim regarding the entirety of the Chinese Protestant church. As the attack on the legitimacy of the fin-1 research paper, #x201C;state#x201D; church and the exposing of the phd engineering, ills of the authorities recall Luther#x2019;s claims against the Roman church, and as the impassioned language, the strength of the fin-1 institutions research, assertions and the form of the theses evoke the symbol of Luther within that movement#x2014;and create a resonance between the figure of Luther and personal statement phd engineering a leader such as Wang#x2014;it is difficult to read the document as anything other than a call to a new Reformation. 3. Parsing the Theses.
In structure, #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; begins with initial clauses affirming God#x2019;s sovereignty as creator and authority over human beings and structures, acknowledging God as governor of the human conscience (#9) and the bible as the rule for human life and inerrant word of God (#12). The second section of theses (#18#x2013;31) presents a concise summation of the gospel message through the lens of covenant, law and redemption. The core of the gospel is not just the renewal of individual human relationships with God through the sacrificial offering of Christ, but also signifies #x201C;the coming of the Kingdom of God, and that all rulers, countries and peoples on earth have been commanded to heed this gospel#x2014;and that includes China#x201D; (#30). 5 The following section (#32#x2013;39) addresses the on life support, question of the personal phd engineering, #x201C;Sinicization#x201D; of Christianity in China, adamantly refuting the support, possibility of any redemption via Chinese culture or love outside of Christ, and presenting an (Romans-heavy) analysis of the state of China#x2019;s relation to God and the limits of natural law. The fourth and fifth sections discuss the authority of Christ given to the church, and the relation between the church and the state as that between two kingdoms.
The church submits to the authority of the statement, #x201C;sword#x201D; of government, while defending its right to protect its own work of preaching the gospel. The nature of the kingdoms and the ideal of absolute separation between church and state comprise the thanksgiving, greatest number of clauses (#45#x2013;72), while the personal statement, final part of the essay on thomas jefferson hamilton, document attacks the stance of the Three-Self Principles Movement and its #x201C;satanic#x201D; relationship with the government. Two things are immediately apparent in reading the ninety-five theses: the recurrent emphasis on China and China#x2019;s place in statement phd engineering God#x2019;s world, and support the marked drawing on a framework of covenants and a language of phd engineering, depravity, which are usually identified as Calvinist in China. 6 The coherence and indurate strength of the declarations derive from combining basic theological propositions taken from Calvin#x2019;s Institutes and the Westminster Confession#x2014;expressed in the document in terms of scriptural references#x2014;with extensive application to a mainland Chinese environment. A central theological datum for Wang, for example, is freedom of conscience, which is linked to writing the church#x2019;s freedom and so to church#x2013;state relations, to questions of what is legal and illegal, to who has ultimate authority over the conscience, and to the bible in its role as #x201C;the constitution of the church.#x201D; The premise often guides the argument: forcing a non-biblical standard onto a Christian, for personal statement example, is #x201C;to destroy humanity#x2019;s conscience and rationality, and to attack God#x2019;s rule over a person#x2019;s conscience#x201D; (#16). Fin-1 Finnish Institutions Research Paper Hopkins! 3.1. Church and State. Church#x2013;state relations form the greater part of the theses. The introduction to #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; offers the theses as the basis for dialogue with the government, and invites comment and debate from believers in other churches who can affirm the document and who want to join the dialogue. The final clause, #95, notes that the statement was timed to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the imprisonment of house church leader Wang Mingdao and of the government attack on the #x201C;Wang Mingdao Anti-Revolutionary Clique#x201D; in 1955, and so to mark sixty years of oppression of the house church and to #x201C;defend the church before government and society.#x201D; The house church proclaims its willingness to meet with representatives of the state, whether local or national government, at any time and place they wish#x2014;but the dialogue is to be based on these theses and on the church#x2019;s theological standpoint.
This is an personal, acknowledgement of a certain stalemate in relations: the Chinese government has accepted that the #x201C;extra-legal#x201D; situation of the house churches cannot continue indefinitely, but expected announcements on their regularization have been continuously postponed, and indeed, the woodland junior help, latest revisions to the Regulations on Religious Affairs seem to propel house churches back towards an illegal position. 7 The church, meanwhile#x2014;and especially the rights#x2019; defense faction of which Wang Yi is a lead proponent#x2014;wants to phd engineering be open and legal, but not at the cost of suppressing the memory of essays on life, its martyrs. Statement! Authority is religious, argues the church document. All humans are governed by essay hamilton, God (#5), and all authority comes from God (#6): the only legitimate reason we obey laws, is because they are instituted by God (#7). All have freedom of conscience (#10), but God is Lord over every conscience, and no human laws can exculpate from moral responsibility before God (#9): the personal statement, choice for all is between obedience to God and enslavement to human authorities. The means that knowing God#x2019;s will is the bible, and once we jettison the essay education system in saudi, bible and personal follow any external standards or authorities, our conscience remains neither moral nor secure (#14, which quotes Luther directly to this effect). To submit to non-biblical demands is to betray freedom, and no-one can demand this of essay system, another human. Clauses 20 and 21 encapsulate both the basis of resistance to the government and the perceived perfidy of the registered church: 21. This means that when anyone wants to become the statement, ruler of our life, and wants to replace the will of God with their own will, or demands our unconditional submission, worship and praise#x2014;no matter whether our wife, our parents, or children, or the essays on life support, government or ruling party; no matter whether they come in tears or bearing a sword#x2014;this type of will, these demands, are all in essence religious in nature. These demands become the #x2018;god#x2019; of a family, a company, or a state; they demand the personal phd engineering, loyalty and compliance of thanksgiving themed writing paper, people#x2019;s consciences. 22.
Morally, this type of will and these demands are evil. They are in opposition to phd engineering God, and to essays humanity. Submitting to this type of will and these demands is likewise evil, idolatrous action. Having established the basis for authority, and reiterating that Chinese society remains under the sovereignty of Christ whoever is in power, and personal phd engineering that in thanksgiving themed writing paper spiritual reality it is Christ who governs and manages history and human hearts (#43), the authors set out their understanding of church#x2013;state relations. Personal Statement Phd Engineering! The church, the body of Christ endowed with the authority of Christ, is #x201C;a kingdom that no eye can see#x201D; (#44), and relations between church and state are therefore those of two #x201C;kingdoms/countries#x201D; (#x56FD;#x5EA6;) and not those between a state and a subordinate religious authority, as the Chinese government might hold. In church history, claims the document somewhat magisterially, these have been understood as the relations between the #x201C;City of God#x201D; and #x201C;City on Earth,#x201D; or between the spiritual and secular kingdoms, or the #x201C;already but not yet#x201D; of the eternal kingdom versus the #x201C;doomed to destruction#x201D; present world (#45). When the church in China is asked, therefore, whether its faith is antagonistic to the government, it responds by asserting that God#x2019;s kingdom has already come to China, and no sword may stand against it (#49); that while the church is essay about education system in saudi arabia, obedient to authorities, it has never belonged to any given state or political power (#50, although this does not mean individuals may not oppose it, when their rights are abrogated); and that, just as the state has been given the authority of the #x201C;sabre#x201D; to manage social order; the church has been given the personal phd engineering, mission of the gospel, to witness to essays the truth (#53). The critical balance of power between the sword of state and the #x201C;keys of the Kingdom of Heaven#x201D; that the church possesses, or the principal of #x201C;the separation of church and personal state#x201D; (#62), imposes responsibilities and fin-1 institutions research paper hopkins restraints on statement phd engineering, each: for what's an informal the church to oppose the sword would be to oppose God (#54), while the statement, government cannot oppose God in refusing the church the right to preach. Since the freedom to preach the gospel comes from education system in saudi, Christ, no country on earth has the phd engineering, power to prevent preachers from travelling across territories and organizing worship (#57).
Moreover, just as the church cannot divest itself of this mission on the pretext of complying with extra-biblical or secular laws, nor can it place its glorious mission concerning the eternal soul of humanity under the control or examination of governments or other organizations: to do so would be to system arabia #x201C;sell God#x201D; (#58, 61, 72). While the things of God and the things of Caesar co-exist, God#x2019;s are internal (#65) and do not come under the sphere of Caesar (#64); no secular power can manage or judge conscience or faith (#68). It is statement phd engineering, Christ who has distinguished the two powers (#66), and woodland junior help the church cannot offer its power to phd engineering transient government or economic powers, or unite its structures with those of the ruling powers, thereby confusing what is of God and of Caesar. The absolute nature of the language on church and state is essays, clear. The statement is also clear on its intended outcome: as soon as the state gives up its attempts to control church doctrine, personnel and phd engineering evangelization work, the support, church will willingly comply with external administrative requirements in personal phd engineering the name of public order, such as registration with the civil affairs department (#91).
8 Elsewhere, Wang Yi has written at length on church and state, codifying the house church demands and expanding on the theological and legal ramifications of upholding the about in saudi arabia, central tenets of freedom of conscience, the bible as the church#x2019;s constitution, and religion as a non-political entity. His own views are, if anything, more polemic than the 95 theses. However, Wang#x2019;s language suggests a subtle balance between gospel and constitution, and his strategy is to address these in tandem. Wang#x2019;s starting point is that the statement phd engineering, house church#x2019;s demands are the demands of the gospel#x2014;and ought to be respected within the scope of the Chinese Constitution and China#x2019;s position as a signatory to various international treaties. The church is not fighting for new rights, but #x201C;asking the homework, state to acknowledge and respect the freedom we already have#x2026;#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. 367). Nor is the church, Wang iterates, demanding democracy or the rule of law; the church can and will exist under many forms of government. The only personal thing it demands, he notes echoing Barth, is the freedom to worship and to spread the gospel. Apart from the essay, state#x2019;s role in guaranteeing the constitutional right to freedom of religion (a clause he suggests #x201C;exists in name only#x201D;), #x201C;the mission of the gospel has nothing to do with state power.#x201D; ([ 14 ], pp. 364, 362). On the question of legality#x2014;and where human laws clash with divine ones#x2014;Wang#x2019;s rhetoric is frank, and combines an appeal to Christian conscience with a defense of the Christian moral and legal position.
Over the last sixty years, he admits, the house church has #x201C;continuously violated the law#x201D; in worship, doctrine, theological education, children#x2019;s Sunday school, charitable work, and so forth ([ 14 ], p. 360). By #x201C;non-violent non-cooperation#x201D; the church has comprehensively violated China#x2019;s administrative regulations and laws: but the more pertinent question, he argues, is whether the state itself has violated them. The state, Wang insists, has #x201C;continuously trampled on phd engineering, its own constitution and laws#x201D; in an #x201C;illegal, autocratic and homework barbarian fashion,#x201D; as he gives example after example to substantiate the statement, claim of #x201C;mistaken application of the essays support, law#x201D; in authorities#x2019; implementation of the various documents pertaining to religious activities from the personal statement phd engineering, 1950s through to the 2000s ([ 14 ], pp. Essay In Saudi Arabia! 360, 365; [ 15 ]). In various essays, Wang (the former lawyer and constitutional historian) discusses the different types of personal statement phd engineering, regulation in force in China, and, like others, challenges the decision to channel religious #x201C;law#x201D; within administrative regulations, overseen by the party-state and not judicial bodies [ 16 ]. A growing literature by essay education system in saudi, scholars and activists attests to contradictions in current legislation, with Christian believers among the most active in calling for the government to implement its own stated ideal of rule by law [ 17 ]. Personal Phd Engineering! 9. The internal question for the church, suggests Wang, is whether it has violated that #x201C;higher, more worthy law#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. 360). Wang triangulates between Augustine, Luther and Calvin in his thinking on fin-1 finnish institutions research, conscience, authority, and the nature of the church, with substantial reference to Samuel Rutherford, and figures such as the Scottish #x201C;puritan#x201D; Robert Murray McCheyne. Phd Engineering! In discussing three stages of conscience that Wang discerns in St Paul, for example (from natural, to religious, to gospel, based on Romans 1 and 2), Wang frequently cites Rutherford, one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly and author of Lex, Rex [ 18 ]. Rutherford is noted for his early reasoning on violent resistance to political sovereignty, constructing on the basis of Romans 13 a conceptual apparatus able #x201C;to appropriate Paul#x2019;s exhortation to obedience in the service of a justification of resistance#x201D; ([ 19 ], p. 140). In tracing Wang#x2019;s mentors, we can see doctrinal, political and personal inspiration: Rutherford not only set out ideas of limited government and essay constitutionalism, but a divine mandate for personal statement Presbyterian forms of on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton, church government, and endured banishment and the burning of his books. Phd Engineering! While Rutherford was strongly opposed to woodland help the deification of conscience and its absolute liberty, we can find in his work the source for two central features of Wang#x2019;s thinking as embedded in the 95 theses: the conscience as #x201C;an understanding power#x201D; according to which we will have to give an account of ourselves, and statement phd engineering the Word of God as #x201C;the rule of Conscience#x201D; ([ 20 ], pp.
4, 10). The question of what's essay, obeying conscience or state authorities has not been a merely intellectual exercise for personal phd engineering Wang and the Early Rain church. Experiences such as the shutting down of the church in what's an informal 2009 by local authorities, at first on #x201C;fire safety#x201D; grounds and subsequently as an #x201C;unregistered public organization,#x201D; have been the basis for a more developed theological and practical stance on church#x2013;state relations [ 21 ]. At the same time as being willing to suffer inconvenience/detention and call for a prayerful response, the church has defended itself vigorously to the local authorities, arguing that the statement, use of the church name on law enforcement documents enabled it to homework be a legal plaintiff, that the enforcement procedure itself was illegal, and that the act denied church members their constitutional right of association. Personal Statement Phd Engineering! As Wang Yi notes, switching the law enforcement of churches from Public Security, to the Religious Affairs Bureau, to the Civil Affairs Bureau was potentially good for house churches#x2014;but denying them the right to register as civil organizations left no legal space for their existence ([ 15 ], p. 26). For Wang, the legal process brought two insights: that the question of freedom of belief was now a broader one of free assembly and the church needed to engage in consensus building with other intellectuals over such freedoms, and that the church needed to question administrative definitions of #x201C;church,#x201D; and wrest this back as a theological concept, #x201C;a group of people called out by God#x201D; ([ 22 ], p. Essays On Life Support! 41). A perhaps more remarkable example, and parallel case of Wang combining doctrinal and legal argument, concerns church schooling. Personal Statement Phd Engineering! In discussing the #x201C;Reformed School#x201D; instituted by his church and responding to the question of whether it was then legal to run a church school, Wang sets up a dichotomy.
It is clear that at one level, setting up a school was an illegal act contravening Article 8 of the Education Law (based on Article 36 of the Constitution) which enshrines #x201C;the separation of education and religion.#x201D; Under a system of #x201C;unified state and themed writing paper religion#x201D; (#x653F;#x6559;#x5408;#x4E00;), with stipulation for education to phd engineering be #x201C;nationalist, collective, internationalist and communist,#x201D; it is inevitable that Christianity will clash with the constitution [ 23 ]. While Wang argues for the absolute separation of church and state, he and his church elders will, he vows, single-mindedly oppose the thanksgiving themed, separation of education and religion. His legal argument turns on phd engineering, the right of citizens to religious belief, a right denied to children in finnish institutions paper hopkins this instance. Here a more militant aspect comes into play: the church of the Lord has no other option, argues Wang, than to refuse to separate education and religion, as he advocates the recovery of Christian education and statement phd engineering the rebuilding of church schools. The dialectic tension between the two kingdoms is evident: for the Christian, whose constitution is the bible, this is what #x201C;accords with the law.#x201D; Wang cites scriptural warrant, arguing (from Proverbs 22: 6 and 2 Chron. 7: 5) that educating children is an offering to God, and not a right that parents can give away. When the possibility of on life support, Christian education exists, to deny this is #x201C;testing God with children#x2019;s fate.#x201D; Having established the breach between state and church worldviews, Wang proceeds to outline a legal space between the bible and the Chinese constitution which provides for a medium-term reconciliation. Again, this works via recourse to personal statement international treaties, which, argues Wang, give parents priority in determining the type of education, and children the freedom to religious and moral education. As he also notes, China#x2019;s own Education Law has provision for religious schools (under State Council regulations), setting precedent for their acceptance as legitimate legal entitles [ 23 ]. 10. In Wang#x2019;s thinking, a stance for freedom of conscience and for the achievement of constitutional rights is essay hamilton, both a continuation of the work for the gospel of house church martyrs such as Wang Mingdao, and a gift to wider society in opening up civic space (this latter is why Alexander Chow wants to discuss Wang et al. as #x201C;public theologians#x201D; rather than #x201C;Calvinist#x201D; ones [ 6 ]).
It is also the only way to understand the history of church#x2013;state relations in the second half of the twentieth century, since the oppression of the church, Wang argues, has been political not legal, and the church#x2013;state clash a matter of politics not law. From the church#x2019;s point of view, he notes, questions of worship, doctrine etc., are all matters of statement phd engineering, faith not politics: the government has politicized faith through its sixty years of persecution, turning the house church question into a political question ([ 14 ], pp. 362#x2013;63). This line of argument speaks to fears both in the house churches that the Reformed sector has been #x201C;politicizing#x201D; faith (which Wang defends robustly, pointing out that the premise for not registering through the essays support, TSPM is not wanting to politicize church), and personal fears in society more generally that the church is meddling in politics. (As Liu Tongsu notes, when the church is criticized for essays on life support #x201C;playing politics,#x201D; this is usually because #x201C;politics#x201D; is widely regarded as meaning #x201C;power games,#x201D; rather than public affairs or public policies [ 24 ].) For Wang, the only way to depoliticize the question is for the state to end oppression and guarantee religious freedom. Personal Phd Engineering! If Wang insists on a transcendental source for secular values such as liberty or constitutionalism, 11 in writing for Christian audiences, he offers a nuanced version of freedom of conscience. In a letter to #x201C;Brothers and Sisters who have dedicated themselves to serve the Reformed Presbyterian Church,#x201D; he notes that the freedom the church has is #x201C;the freedom of conscience brought by the gospel,#x201D; and offers an anecdote to show the nature of this freedom and essays support how it is linked to the church#x2019;s simultaneous existence in two states/kingdoms. An outsider had commented to Wang on how the Early Rain church lived in personal statement truth #x201C;as if you weren#x2019;t living under the CCP#x201D; [ 25 ]. Although he was not a believer, the speaker continued, he could see that the church was the freest group in all China, and that no other collective spread the faith or discussed Chinese society with such a lack of scruples. Junior Homework! This, for Wang, was important affirmation that living in fearless freedom really did equate to statement living outside of party-state control, embodying in community the truth that #x201C;the church is another kingdom/country.#x201D; The transformation that the cross brings is manifest, he explains, in #x201C;a counter-cultural culture, a counter-governmental government,#x201D; where money is for distribution and power is for serving others, and finnish institutions research paper where members can speak in a bounded freedom. Church life is personal statement, qualitatively different from life in woodland junior the secular world, since the church is #x201C;the community of those who enter the Most Holy Place,#x201D; a sacred place of truth and personal statement phd engineering protection. Education System In Saudi! 12 In contrast to personal phd engineering an older generation of so-called #x201C;cultural Christians#x201D; who have eschewed church community, the essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander, generation of the Reformed Church under its young leaders has put a premium on community and especially small-group life.
Wang#x2019;s views on church#x2013;state relations are internally consistent and he is widely viewed as a prophetic voice in the house church movement. However, as may be clear from the description above, they also raise significant questions. The 95 theses document arrogates to the church the right to define relations with the state, based on a biblical view and on a particular reading of statement, theological history, leaving little room for dialogue. Wang might argue that the theses are based on the Westminster Confession [ 26 ], but on such key points as the balancing function of the civil magistrate in its judicial and deliberative functions#x2014;the authority of the magistrate regarding not just orderly worship but also doctrine and the right to call synods (see [ 27 ], Ch. XXX.3)#x2014;he eschews the original (and the view of Calvin) and follows the later revisions and on life exclusion clauses of various Presbyterian bodies. 13 More critically for ecumenical relations and personal statement phd engineering relations with the an informal, state, Wang#x2019;s views disregard other (non-Calvinist) theological constructs of church#x2013;state relations, and do not allow for the possibility of their legitimacy, or for development within Protestant churches on the matter. 14 The tendency to use Calvinist theology as a proxy for Christian theology vis-#xE0;-vis the state is compounded by personal phd engineering, a tendency to speak for the entire house church, and to regard Reformed doctrine as unquestionably normative for this disparate body, a move problematic both for the house churches and for the post-denominational emphasis of the (state) church nationally. What's! 15. While the church proclaims its Calvinist heritage, the theological basis and scope of personal statement, Wang#x2019;s pronouncements merit further discussion.
Certain elements are explicit: a Calvinist political community under the lordship of on life support, Christ, with both state and church accountable to God; the personal, church as a restored community; a neo-Calvinist belief in about system the limited role of government and civil protection for religious freedom; a Lutheran call to take up a (metaphorical) sword when the state transgresses into the spiritual realm. Other elements are less clear, such as the anticipated relation of the statement, two kingdoms to the Kingdom of God, as well as to each other#x2014;along the lines of a Kuyperian refining of spheres of sovereignty and essay about the function of government itself. Does the stress on imago dei in the 95 theses imply that governance is good and fundamental to human life? A more positive Calvinist view of the role of the state in God#x2019;s overall economy and in statement phd engineering transforming society seems tempered by the experience of the Chinese state, but it is unclear how this experience filters back into doctrinal statements. Finnish Research! Under-theorized questions include how life outside of the church, that part under state authority, is connected to God (especially given that the Communist view of all life under its purview parallels the church one), and how the church conceptualizes participation in secular life as individuals and communities, in light of Wang#x2019;s #x201C;Christian first, citizen second#x201D; formula. The document is silent on such questions as the dangers inhering in elevating individual conscience above legal systems (thesis #10)#x2014;whilst holding to equal separate spheres#x2014;and of the consequences in a country where legislation gives primacy to the state over individual autonomy ([ 5 ], p. 158). One could argue that the positive engagement with society, especially over questions of public or civil space, by Wang and the rights-proclaiming Chinese churches, is actually aimed at personal, enabling a separate space, a Lutheran-type sphere for the church to be church, in a model more akin to the older house-church version of separation than its Calvinist-leaning leaders might suppose. Despite the much publicized work of select Christian lawyers and rights activists, the social reform, or kingdom building element of woodland junior homework help, house church work is still relatively inchoate#x2014;although it may be premature to expect answers and action when some house churches are still fighting for the basic right to statement exist. 3.2. The Sinicization of Christianity and Denunciation of the TSPM.
If explaining a house church ecclesiology forms a major concern of #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; the church#x2019;s position on two other significant issues derives naturally from the premises and arguments above. The nature of #x201C;Chinese Christianity#x201D; has been contested since the earliest days of the Protestant mission, and has been a focal question for two recent constituencies, the academic study of Christianity in China, often termed Sino-Christian theology, and theologians in state-approved seminaries, particularly within the #x201C;Theological Reconstruction#x201D; movement. The second issue, a trenchant critique of the role the education in saudi, state church has taken vis-#xE0;-vis the authorities, is already implicit in the account of church and state. The remainder of this article offers some brief pointers towards reading these two questions and their subsurface debates. Phd Engineering! The house church#x2019;s stance in fin-1 finnish research paper the 95 theses on both issues is unequivocal: anyone advocating, for example, the #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of Christianity is personal statement phd engineering, #x201C;denying Christ#x201D; and #x201C;will fall under God#x2019;s righteous curse and about education system in saudi arabia judgement#x201D; (#36). The list denoting what #x201C;sinicization#x201D; might mean appears comprehensive: 37. This kind of advocacy or demand for a #x201C;sinicization of Christianity#x201D; includes claims for the worship of the unique God revealed in Scripture within traditional Chinese culture and statement religion, or for a means of saving grace akin to or identical with that of the atonement of Jesus Christ; advocating that in traditional Chinese culture or religion there is revelation of salvation outside of the unique God of the bible; advocating that the basic doctrines of the essays, church catholic must, or need, be adapted to Chinese cultural traditions or contemporary society or political system; advocating getting rid of the historic Christ for some #x201C;cosmic Christ#x201D; theory and holding that Chinese traditions contain the way of salvation of Christ; diluting or denying the statement phd engineering, substitutionary atonement of writing paper, Christ on the cross by means of #x201C;justification by love#x201D; or other such tenets consonant with traditional Chinese moral thinking. 38. The church must oppose the #x201C;sinicization of Christianity,#x201D; that is, oppose the twisting of the gospel by statement, culture, or the thanksgiving writing paper, use of politics to bind faith, or using Chinese traditions that are not faithful to God to sever from the traditions of the universal church that are faithful to God. The referents are unstated, but it is possible to tease out three types of thinking implicated in the critique in statement #37. The first is the education system arabia, least well-defined: those claiming that the Jewish/Christian God can be found in classical Chinese texts, and that these texts may have a Christian redemptive function.
Debates over whether the #x201C;Shangdi#x201D; of early canonical texts is the same God as referred to in Hebrew and Christian scriptures have occupied Protestant scholars since the personal statement, nineteenth century, and provided cause for finnish hopkins much acrimonious debate and division, but there are very few in the church who have advocated an alternative route to statement salvation from these, especially in the present, and most contemporary work on Christian#x2013;Confucian etc., dialogue is academic rather than confessional. 16 The timeline gives a clue to the grounds for the objection: thesis #32 explains that God used Chinese culture and wisdom in fin-1 research hopkins the past to reveal God to China, but the new covenant of Christ (#40) supersedes any earlier stages of revelation through nature or conscience. Statement Phd Engineering! The second set of those #x201C;twisting the gospel through culture#x201D; seems potentially to encompass all engaged in any form of indigenization or in culturation work adapting doctrine to Chinese culture or society#x2014;that is, much of the an informal, history of Chinese Christian theology#x2014;and appears predicated on belief in a supra-cultural gospel, separated from the linguistic forms and phd engineering cultural meanings through which it is transmitted. This may be an about education system, over-reading of what is personal phd engineering, intended in the Early Rain document (indigenization is essay education in saudi, only sometimes a matter of transmuting core doctrines), but the text might be read as an phd engineering, undifferentiated attack on everything from the work of liberal, church theologians in the bensehua #x672C;#x8272;#x5316; or bentuhua #x672C;#x571F;#x5316; (#x201C;indigenization#x201D;) movements of the early twentieth century through to the writings of a thinker such as He Guanghu in the 2000s arguing that Christianity should start out from fin-1 institutions research, social reality. Reference to the cosmic Christ and #x201C;justification by personal statement, love#x201D; are more straightforward to on life delineate: both address the theology of the former head of the TSPM, Bishop Ding Guangxun. Ding#x2019;s work drawing on statement phd engineering, Teilhard de Chardin is well-known, as is his foregrounding of a God of love#x2014;alongside a widespread (mis)belief that Ding denied the core Protestant doctrine of homework, justification by faith (see e.g., [ 31 ], p. 7).
A discussion of contextualization in Chinese Christianity is beyond the scope of this paper, but it is a little ironic that a church with such a strong denominational and transplanted historical context shaping the parameters of its theology should be so readily dismissive of others#x2019; attempts to engage their cultural setting. The danger of damning cultural adaptation of core doctrine is that of tainting all indigenization moves, and of discouraging engagement with liberals by anathematizing their extreme manifestation. Zhao Zichen, revered theologian and, presumably, epitome of those targeted, wrote in 1947, #x201C;to the Chinese, God speaks as if He were a Chinese,#x201D; and phd engineering yet for all, #x201C;the Word goes out over against their particular existing environments#x201D; ([ 32 ], p. 482). This same Zhao who saw in Confucius #x201C;a clear revelation of God, though only in certain particulars#x201D; and the indigenous church as #x201C;one which conserves and unified all truths contained in the Christian religion and in China#x2019;s ancient civilization,#x201D; also did his utmost to essay on thomas evangelize China and to #x201C;follow Jesus#x201D; personally, as did many of the academic theologians of the day [ 33 , 34 ]. The potential for misrepresentation of #x201C;Sinicizing#x201D; attempts among liberal theologians is clear, but the thesis gives no context: one of the most active periods of conceptualizing a #x201C;Chinese church,#x201D; for example, was the 1920s, in the midst of national crisis about what it meant to be Chinese, when not to personal statement engage with the question would have been negligent. A set of theses is necessarily concise, but the omission of specificity threatens to blur the argument. Ding Guangxun did not deny justification by faith, arguing only that Christians erred when they paid attention to this to the exclusion of essay system in saudi arabia, works, yet the tendency to repeat this statement unexamined has extended well beyond Chinese evangelical scholarship.
17 In place of #x201C;sinicization,#x201D; house church voices have called for phd engineering the #x201C;evangelization of fin-1 research hopkins, China, the kingdomization of the church, the Christianization of phd engineering, culture#x201D; (#x4E2D;#x56FD;#x798F;#x97F3;#x5316;, #x6559;#x4F1A;#x56FD;#x5EA6;#x5316;, #x6587;#x5316;#x57FA;#x7763;#x5316;). It remains to be seen how the an informal, #x201C;Christianization#x201D; of Chinese culture may proceed without the evisceration of the Chinese or imposition of foreign cultural forms. A notable trait among urban house church writers is to acknowledge United States church partners for material help, training, and personal phd engineering as a dialogue partner#x2014;and yet to seem to what's an informal see this as a neutral, culture-free Christianity. While the anti-sinicization theses are aimed at a spectrum of academics and statement phd engineering theologians and a range of beliefs on Christ and culture, the attack on the state church (#73#x2013;#95) is junior homework, directed at one facet: its betrayal of the keys of personal statement, Heaven entrusted to it, through collusion with the homework help, ruling authorities. There is a clear link between the extremely rigid separation of spheres of church and state described above and the rejection in totality of the TSPM, which relates back to the church#x2013;state split of the 1950s (alluded to in #95) and the sense that the church #x201C;sold out#x201D; on the faith in the decisions made. The house church, the document states, will not accept any censorship or monitoring by the government, any training or registration or interference in appointments, any financial controls or limitation on worship (place, age of participants, content); any slander against personal or persecution of missionaries in China; any church officers who also work for the government or in political parties; any notion of #x201C;religious affairs#x201D; as part of government business (#74, 86, 87). To do so betrays the finnish institutions research, authority entrusted to the church and #x201C;joins in the oppression of the true church#x201D; (#75); it is the sign of a corrupt and idolatrous church, a whore not the bride of Christ (#83), a #x201C;false church#x201D; that has given itself over to political power (#79), a #x201C;scheme of personal, Satan#x201D; that denies the kingdom of Christ is higher than nations on earth (#76). The house church must #x201C;fight to death#x201D; for the invisible keys to the kingdom and power of the gospel (#82), and uphold its three core principles of the (inerrant) Bible as its guide; Christ as the fin-1 finnish institutions research, only head of the church, and statement phd engineering the separation of church and state, with the system in saudi, church submitting to government power in the sphere of governance and holding to freedom of phd engineering, conscience in matters spiritual (#78). Paper! The passion is statement, evident, as is the essay, combination of loyalty and theological absolutism, based on a certain reading of scripture and of Reformed theology. Making #x201C;two kingdoms#x201D; theology and personal phd engineering the separation of church and essay on thomas state the central dogma of faith has had a clear concomitant effect on the scope and direction of theological debate for statement phd engineering the Early Rain church. While one can understand why the current assault of government advice to registered pastors as to what local and national issues merit attention, and indeed what they might like to focus on in their preaching, might repel pastors such as Wang Yi, such language#x2014;which echoes nothing so much as the tone of the Vatican on vs alexander, communists in the 1950s#x2014;makes reconciliation between the registered and unregistered churches almost impossible to conceive.
It also represents a partial reading of personal statement phd engineering, both Chinese church history and Reformed tradition, as suggested above. On the support, debates of the 1950s, others within the house church movement have taken a more conciliatory approach regarding the decisions that the fledging unified church took to maintain its existence, including Wang Yi#x2019;s co-author Liu Tongsu; a careful re-reading of the debates and personal phd engineering of the historical situation of the Chinese church in the Republic and the early years of the PRC is imperative to any progress on this question ([ 35 ], p. 207). Wang Yi#x2019;s particular reading of Calvinist tradition on church autonomy (versus independence) and his heavy dependence on American interpretations and experience over, say, European modes of church#x2013;state relations, have channeled the course of debate, a debate which will continue to have ramifications within the house church movement and nationally. Woodland! South African theologian Denise Ackermann notes that #x201C;We say God is love; we do not often say that God is freedom,#x201D; and recounts how the neo-Calvinism that dominated Reformed South African theology almost deterred her from finding the #x201C;stunning depth#x201D; in Calvin#x2019;s writing on freedom, that freedom which enables consciences to rise above the law and resist tyranny, whose embrace permits true service of others ([ 36 ], pp. 150#x2013;55).
In contrast, freedom of conscience is a cardinal tenet of Wang Yi#x2019;s theology (whereas God as love is more problematic because of the association of that theme with TSPM theologies). It is easy to see why a Chinese lawyer and constitutional expert would be drawn to Calvinist thought and to the central question of church#x2013;state relations. The exponential growth in personal phd engineering academic interest in Calvinism in China attests to thanksgiving themed writing paper broader interest in such thought ([ 5 ], pp. 156#x2013;57), 18 while Wang Yi himself invested considerable time in translating into Chinese Douglas F. Personal! Kelly#x2019;s volume The Emergence of Liberty in the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on what's essay, Five Governments from the Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries [ 37 ]. If anything, one might argue that Wang Yi has spent too much time reading sixteenth- and seventeenth-century theology, seen in hyperbolic language and in the revivifying of debates in contemporary China soaked in the 1584 Black Acts, monarchical tyranny and National Covenant. We can hold in tension two conclusions. The first is the courageous, and timely stance on the gospel and on such questions as the personal phd engineering, rule of law and role of a constitution that the Early Rain church document represents. The cost to support the house church of its beliefs has been very great over the last sixty years, and the sacrifice has given the church a strong moral voice in debate, a voice and confidence that it is now deploying to good effect in the interests of other citizens. Given China#x2019;s contradictory relations with its judiciary and constitution as well as with international legal bodies, and set against a background of the state strengthening its control over statement phd engineering, churches, it is both timely and dangerous to dissect the constitution, or to write openly of teaching school children about the Tiananmen massacre. Grounding legal activism in theology has provided the same impetus and strength that drove an older generation of house church activists. In an era when the Chinese government is dealing with global aspirations to woodland homework help theocracy on its north-west borders, a propulsion to absolute division between state and religion also provides much food for political thought.
This tendency towards the absolute, however, furnishes the second conclusion. Wang Yi and phd engineering the Early Rain church 95 theses have avoided much of the more nationalistic aspects of Calvinist thought and of other sectors of the Chinese church in their analysis of church#x2013;state relations, and two kingdoms theology may contribute to a way beyond recent advocacy of Chinese exceptionalism, or insoluble debate on nationalism versus patriotism. The zealous and essay on thomas jefferson uncompromising interpretation of two kingdoms theology, however, brings its own problems. One is a potential inflexibility in dealing with the state, both at a practical level (and so potentially engendering unnecessary oppression or control, limiting the reach of church work 19 ) and also metaphysically, in personal phd engineering inhibiting theological thinking on how to homework integrate life in the civil and church worlds#x2014;even under an oppressive, atheist regime, or on how to serve vocationally in the civic sphere, or even be a Christian leader and politician. Another is in representing Christianity truthfully, to Christians and to the state.
As suggested above, the personal statement, tendency to speak for an informal all of the #x201C;house church#x201D; has been compounded by narrow views of Christian history and biblical mandate, especially on the contentious question of church#x2013;state relations. While Wang Yi has championed thinkers such as the Scottish reformers, he has not always followed through the natural inference: in statement phd engineering the Scottish case, that kirk#x2013;state relations have been much more complex and interrelated than allowed for fin-1 research in his parsing, or that various European Presbyterian churches have followed very different trajectories than the personal statement, US model and its outworking in church and society#x2014;or even that Luther himself entertained a much greater acceptance of state authority over church affairs than Wang#x2019;s absolutist line.
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Essay mills: university course work to order. David Matthews investigates the scale and threat of the custom essay industry. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Picture the following scenario: marking an essay by personal statement phd engineering one of your more underwhelming students, you grow suspicious. You would like to be pleased by the unexpected quality of the work, but instead you feel “a twinge that a sentence is essay, too neatly framed”, as one scholar who has found herself in this position puts it.
The analysis is personal, superb, the essays writing style good - but is it too good? It bears little resemblance to previous work by the same student: indeed, it is in personal a different league. But it has been through Turnitin, the woodland homework help academic plagiarism checker, and come back clean. Personal Statement! Has the student miraculously improved, or are you looking at a particularly pernicious problem afflicting today’s higher education sector: the paid- for, custom-written essay? Custom essays, usually bought through websites known as essay mills, are in some ways an academic’s worst nightmare. Unlike standard examples of copy-and-paste plagiarism, they cannot be detected using software because they are “original” pieces of work - just not the student’s. They also arguably represent an even more cynical form of about education in saudi, cheating than, for example, regurgitating unattributed passages in a piece of submitted work. For many years, essay mills have been brazenly advertising their wares online, although they are always careful not to condone customers handing in bought pieces of work, arguing that the essays purchased are intended simply as useful guides or reference material. No one knows how big the market in custom essays is, or whether universities are managing to personal statement detect those students who do hand them in. There are also concerns that in finnish hopkins an age of mass higher education and high student-to-staff ratios, lecturers are less able to get to personal statement know their students’ work, making this form of cheating more difficult to detect. And there are fears that the pressures of the job might encourage some academics to turn a blind eye to fin-1 finnish institutions hopkins the practice.
But perhaps the most important question is whether it is possible to personal statement phd engineering prevent this form of cheating in the first place. Asking how many custom-written essays are being bought and sold in the UK is a bit like asking “how long is on life support, a piece of string?”, argues Thomas Lancaster, senior lecturer in computing at Birmingham City University. Personal Statement! For obvious reasons (including the fact that cheats do not want to be caught, essay mills operate online, and there are no official statistics), it is difficult to essay vs alexander hamilton come by reliable figures. However, Lancaster, along with his former colleague Robert Clarke, has attempted to quantify the scale of the problem. The pair studied a large sample of essay mill sites between March 2005 and personal statement phd engineering, June 2013, and identified nearly 19,000 attempts at contract cheating by students.
While they examined websites that could be used by anyone anywhere in the world, a more detailed study of 59 postings in 2011 on one website, vworker.com, found 18 references to essay on thomas assignments at UK universities. “What we detected is the tip of the iceberg,” cautions Lancaster. No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on personal phd engineering, the web, but five years ago Lancaster and Clarke listed 158. In addition to the online activity, there is an fin-1 finnish institutions research paper hopkins unknown number of essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on personal statement, campus. “You get flyers pinned up on university noticeboards that say: ‘We’ll do your work’,” Lancaster explains.
Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at fin-1 institutions research, all. Prices vary dramatically. An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at the cheaper end of the phd engineering market, but some sites charge in on thomas jefferson the region of ?150-?160. One website, which sells itself as a “premier” service, charges ?50 an hour. This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the cost (particularly for personal statement phd engineering international students) of having to retake a year. At the top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of 25,000 words cost in the region of ?2,800. Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the fin-1 institutions scale of demand for their services, although the figures are self-reported and some academics say that the statement phd engineering firms may exaggerate their popularity to attract publicity and gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at All Answers (which trades under a number of names on the web, including UKessays.com), says that the essays company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in personal statement 2012, of which three-quarters were ordered from UK IP addresses. This figure is difficult to verify, but the on life support firm’s accounts appear to be consistent with a company selling essays in such quantities. Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in the UK by personal phd engineering rival agencies each year (although students at British universities can also order from abroad).
In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the business was worth ?200 million a year and essay about education arabia, boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of personal statement, London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to on life support exaggerate their size through the press “because it’s good advertising. It’s a very media- friendly problem.” Whatever the phd engineering number of essays being commissioned and the scale of the companies involved, information gathered by Times Higher Education under the Freedom of Information Act suggests that the thanksgiving writing number of custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is tiny. THE asked UK universities to provide details of the number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and personal statement phd engineering, 2012-13 for essay about education arabia handing in custom essays or assignments bought from essay mills.
Among the universities that responded to the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in 2011-12; in statement phd engineering 2012-13, 30 students from 15 institutions were penalised. More than half the offenders hailed from outside the UK. Fin-1 Institutions Research! Some argue that the high fees paid by international students and the need to write in English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be ‘too much effort’, Carroll says. Personal Statement Phd Engineering! In any case, she is unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for a significant number of on life, All Answers’ customers, English is personal statement, a second language. She claims that “many of these struggle to put their thoughts and ideas across, or to essay interpret their course material and lectures. I believe this is why they choose to use a service like ours.” In Lancaster’s experience, both domestic and international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and related issue is the matter of statement phd engineering, students paying for the translation of an essay written in a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism. As THE reported in August, some universities still lack clear policies on whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to help them with their work.
The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is clear. Graduates emerge from what's university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to phd engineering outsource an assignment on nuclear engineering. One of the essay on thomas vs alexander hamilton scholar’s presentations on the subject asks: “Do you want to live within five miles of this person?” But there is also a more specific form of damage to the university. You need only one student to go “to a job and not be able to do it” for an employer to phd engineering “write off” other graduates of that university, Lancaster argues. He believes that employers have long memories and institutions research paper, will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to be trusted. So contract cheating “has the effect of personal phd engineering, penalising honest students”, he adds. Given the essays ethical issues, who agrees to work for the sites?
The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is statement, a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to paper hopkins provide evidence of his qualifications and samples of his writing when applying for the job. Personal! Some companies claim to woodland employ staff with at least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and ask them to statement phd engineering complete trial assignments. Many contract essay companies justify their trade by arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to write. “Many students just want to see how it’s done,” says Wiss, who also claims that the “vast majority” of All Answers’ customers do not hand in their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on to clients - a common practice in the industry. Essay! Why do this unless customers want to hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to make sure that its writers are “spending the personal statement time they are paid for on the project and not cutting corners”. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to on thomas hamilton blame universities for phd engineering the rise of the essay mill. About Education System In Saudi! Institutions admit international students who can “barely string a sentence together”, Wiss claims, while others are “thrown in at the deep end” when they start university.
However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are “disingenuous”, according to a spokesman for Universities UK. “Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the statement phd engineering grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and woodland homework, are purchased invariably to meet clear deadlines,” he says. The anonymous essay writer offers a number of clues that he says may help to personal statement alert academics to custom-written essays. Essay writing agencies generally require writers to submit their work in a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and chapter headings, regardless of length. “If you didn’t ask your students to submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm,” he says. Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and so rely heavily on first-page previews from finnish hopkins journal sites or Google Books. “Really probe the references, because this is the weak part,” he advises. Jude Carroll, an phd engineering education consultant at Oxford Brookes University and a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to be aggressively “investigative” if they smell a rat. What's! If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used.
The “biggest worry” for academics who have such suspicions is personal, that they lack proof, she says - but that is no excuse for inaction. “There’s no support for the argument about fin-1 research hopkins, proof. Students can’t question academic judgements. You don’t have to be [100 per personal phd engineering cent] sure, you have to weigh the balance of probabilities - and be at least 65 per cent sure,” she thinks. But for another academic, who asks to remain anonymous, launching an investigation is not that simple. “I’m ashamed to admit it but you simply don’t have the time to launch a plagiarism case,” she says. One colleague, the same academic recalls, had to “almost google every line” of a suspect essay and essay on thomas vs alexander hamilton, make several trips to the library to ascertain whether her fears about a piece of phd engineering, work were genuine.
In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be “too much effort”, she says. In any case, she is also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Universities have a “real anxiety about the essay vs alexander hamilton litigation culture” and phd engineering, are “anxious” about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the writing punishments for handing in contracted essays are “highly variable”. She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of how likely students are to personal statement cheat. “I believe students should be thrown out” if caught, she says. “It’s fraud.” However, according to the results of finnish institutions hopkins, THE ’s FoI request, most students who cheat in personal statement phd engineering this manner can expect to remain on their courses. Of the 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and themed writing paper, 2012-13, just 13 were expelled.
In one case at personal phd engineering, Newcastle University, for what's example, an international student suspected of personal, handing in work purchased from the essays site Essays.uk.com was given a “final written warning” but no other punishment. Many believe that academics’ first line of defence against custom essays is to set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to personal statement phd engineering outsource. The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to draw on lectures and class discussion when setting essays. “This is something that is either less visible or invisible to the ghostwriter,” he explains, and therefore much more difficult to achieve. Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to outsource, he says. “Chances are I won’t be able to do this as well because I won’t have that book to hand.
If asked to, I have a problem.” He also cautions against vs alexander hamilton sending out lecture notes in electronic formats or putting them online, because this only makes it easier for ghostwriters to phd engineering give the impression of having attended courses. However, the Equality Challenge Unit points out that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and some departments require academics to provide lecture notes to on thomas vs alexander all students for phd engineering this reason. Some essay questions appear time and time again, making them easier for contract writers to complete, so one obvious piece of finnish research, advice from plagiarism experts is to avoid setting assignments on predictable topics such as “women in Dickens”. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the work themselves. In 2007, Google banned advertisements for essay writing services on its website, a move welcomed by personal phd engineering UUK. Couldn’t the government introduce a blanket ban on the companies? A spokeswoman for vs alexander hamilton the Department for Business, Innovation and personal, Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. “Whether a student and/or ‘writing service’ have committed an offence would be for a court to decide and depend on the individual circumstances of the case,” she says. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Vs Alexander Hamilton! “There is no action BIS could take to statement phd engineering address this.”
Another drastic option is suggested by the tale of a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to test the waters, only to find one of his own assignments out to tender. He wrote it, and when one of his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is “very keen to work with universities to provide a service that can’t be abused in the first place” - but only essay system in saudi arabia, if universities agree that the company is “a legitimate source of academic help”. The UUK spokesman declines to comment on this and says: “More should be done to clamp down on these essay companies.” He adds that the statement phd engineering body does not have any specific proposals to tackle the problem (although suggestions are welcome).
So there does not appear to be any systematic solution to essay mills on the horizon, and responsibility for detecting and dealing with the issue continues to rest with individual academics and their universities. “If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to have to spend more time engaging with their students’ submitted work,” concludes the anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to do just that. Nothing to hide (except your details) “Although using our service is not cheating, and you have nothing to hide if you use the service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously … We never share details of your order with your university.” “First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. Fin-1 Institutions Paper Hopkins! thanks.” - Theo, Manchester. “Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to the days when the custom essay industry was underhand and untrustworthy. We’re actively involved in phd engineering re-educating them and essay on thomas, changing their perspective.” “Just wanted to send a note to say thanks. Statement Phd Engineering! Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for my degree!! I can now apply for my Masters! Thanks ever so much!! Do you write to Masters level?” - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon.
Set students short tests or presentations based on essay, their essays. Ask students to write their essays with reference to personal statement phd engineering lectures or class discussions. Set unusual questions or ask for junior help analysis of personal, set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters. If you suspect an essay may not be a student’s work, ask them to explain the key words, concepts and research. Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to full journals or books, so may be able to fin-1 finnish institutions research paper hopkins reference only the personal phd engineering preview pages of online articles. If an essay education system in saudi essay seems overly formatted, for example, with a contents page and chapters, this could be because of a standard format used by essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to tender. Click here for more on preventing plagiarism. Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register.
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Research Assistant/Research Fellow in essay vs alexander hamilton Modelling Root Traits to Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics. Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. Last week, the personal UK’s universities minister threatened to on life support fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the prime minister without a strong justification. We present three perspectives on personal phd engineering, the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and fin-1 finnish hopkins, dysfunction at the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan. We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in the capacity of our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane.
Lack of personal, job security, limited support from management and weight of paper, work-related demands on time among risk factors. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and get unlimited access to all of Times Higher Education 's content? You'll get full access to personal our website, print and what's an informal, digital editions, and the Times Higher Education app for iOS, Android and Kindle Fire devices.
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You want your most relevant skills and experience to personal phd engineering, jump off the page and paper, grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in phd engineering, which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to what's an informal essay, resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Download selected resumes on your desktop. No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume.
Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and personal statement, experience, listing as many skills as possible, and engaging in an informal essay, other overkill tactics. Excessive and irrelevant information only clutters the page and makes it more difficult to statement phd engineering, find the skills and information for which your prospective employer is searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to essay in saudi, the job being sought. As such, a separate resume should be used for each job if the required skills, education, and experience are different. At the end of statement phd engineering this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae.
First, though, let’s take a look at how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to be in the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to not only the skills, experience, and education of a desired employee, but also the description, expectations, and demands of the job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. If the employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the website or even calling and asking for details. The more you know about your prospective employers, the education more power you have to show them a picture-perfect employee on paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for the job; don’t waste your time applying.
Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the bulk of your experience. You may have to statement phd engineering, begin at an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and upper management applicants from within. If this is the what's an informal case, be extremely careful about divulging the extent of your education, experience, and salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’. However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is that at some point you just have to phd engineering, accept that options are limited and be willing to institutions research paper, ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to excel beyond expectation and increase your odds of recognition and promotion. Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and Experience. If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on the first page and personal, that it’s not crowded with words. In addition to your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and thanksgiving writing paper, relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a number of years, try to list only the most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and personal statement phd engineering, either make a note that a more extensive job history is what's, available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in personal, case the reviewer is so inclined to read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the razzle and woodland help, dazzle of the personal statement first page of your resume.
Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Junior Help! Yes, you need experience to demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to hone those skills, but employers need to know the statement capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to on life, sound like it came out of the Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to present a snapshot of statement what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of themed writing paper required skills and job duties and phd engineering, use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on education the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history.
You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to read and make every word count. In order to phd engineering, accomplish this, you need to what's an informal essay, use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and personal, long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and hamilton, centered. Personal Statement Phd Engineering! This would be a great place to list your skills.
If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Thanksgiving Themed Paper! Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on personal your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of what's an informal essay personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in phd engineering, between each section, increase the font size of your name.
If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to homework, disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from statement phd engineering, other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in essay about education system arabia, this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for personal statement phd engineering a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for on life it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and personal statement phd engineering, conveniently, consider using the same name and changing only the essay system last word. Statement Phd Engineering! For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’.
Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the essay jefferson vs alexander job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Personal Statement! Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for what's essay an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to phd engineering, a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of essays on life support text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space.
You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Personal Statement Phd Engineering! Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to essay system in saudi arabia, know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Personal Phd Engineering! Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and institutions paper, this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience. First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. Phd Engineering! If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer.
You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to essay, your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of personal all the schools you’ve attended and junior help, courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for personal statement and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to junior help, be invited to an interview.
Finally, state the easiest way for statement phd engineering the employer to essay jefferson vs alexander hamilton, reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in personal phd engineering, your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and ultimately invite you to an interview. The rest is up to what's, you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to personal statement phd engineering, make a solid impact. On Thomas Jefferson Vs Alexander Hamilton! You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the statement seller is to sell yourself.
You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of on life others, therefore you must find a way to statement phd engineering, rise to the top. You need to put yourself in fin-1 finnish research paper, a stronger position, instead of personal statement you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the what's essay demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close.
You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to personal statement, the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in fin-1 finnish, the position, you are going beyond the statement phd engineering canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. Essay About In Saudi! After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow.
You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is statement phd engineering, succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to themed, show initiative by personal statement phd engineering, suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to fin-1 finnish research hopkins, perform, by proving that you not only statement did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the on life job for personal phd engineering years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Help! Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Statement! Many employees have innovative ideas about fin-1 institutions, how to perform their jobs better, tap into that information for free and then add your own spin. Use the power of imagination to statement, stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to vs alexander hamilton, be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over personal phd engineering the web.
If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. Themed! Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an statement phd engineering, impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the support Curriculum Vitae templates are at statement your disposal without any guaranty.
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