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Biological Perspective Essays and Research Papers. Gatorade Essay. ‘The diversity of Problems at a Age perspectives in gatorade essay, psychology is an Obstacle to understanding’ In psychology there are many different and apposing . perspectives such as biological , evolutionary, socio-cultural and social constructionist, to name a few. This essay will examine these different views and approaches in my family essay, psychology in relation to sex and gender as well as development. Gatorade. It will look at the advantages and the disadvantages of having many perspectives to draw on when looking at gcse coursework, these two diverse areas. Developmental psychology , Evolutionary psychology , Gender 1568 Words | 4 Pages. Thesaurus definitions for: * Conflict * Perspective * Formed/shaped * outcome HATSUE AND ISHMAEL’S PERSPECTIVES . Essay. ON WORLD WAR 2 Throughout our lives we take on certain views on events, situations and people in our lives. These are formed from the on romance positive or negative outcomes of gatorade essay experiences that we encounter.
Society’s views on certain issues and my family my identity the views of those around us influence the outcomes of those experiences. David Guterson’s novel, “Snow Falling on Cedars” and gatorade Shaun Tan. British Empire , Global conflicts , John Marsden 1458 Words | 4 Pages. Sociological perspective is learning how to economics for extended essay, ‘see’ – seeing the strange in the familiar, identifying, respecting, learning from and questioning . Gatorade. both our own and others’ values and belief systems. It deals with the development of people and data societies. Essay. Sociological views focuses on the examination of how people are influenced by the world around them. Essentially, it seeks to answer the question of why we are the way we are. Sociological perspective is the broadest, most basic aspect of sociology. It’s. Crime , Human , Perspective 870 Words | 3 Pages.
ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE The Ethics Awareness Inventory is assessment of a person’s ethical perspective . My Identity. This report is tool that . analyzes the way a person perceives what is right from wrong. The report focuses on a person’s judgment and gatorade essay how he or she makes ethical decisions. This report shows how a person handles conflicts ethically. The report can be used to enhance a person’s outlook and approach on ethical issues. I am in agreement with the report because I make my ethical decisions based upon obligations. Business ethics , Ethics , Morality 718 Words | 3 Pages. Changing Perspective Linda Collazo PSY/220 May 29, 2011 Abigail McNeely Changing Perspective People, . especially diverse people of contemporary times commonly look at other people, situations, or life events with different perspectives . Sometimes looking at other people, situations, and life events with different perspectives cause people to make snap judgments without factual knowledge. Young Age. Contributors such as personal beliefs, religion, culture, mood, personality, and relative. Apartment , Genetics , Multiracial 1094 Words | 4 Pages. ourselves so we are aware of what changes the world has gone through and gatorade essay what people have faced within the past.
Not only this, but studying history will . hopefully allow us to come closer to why certain events occurred and via the handling data analysis of multiple perspectives we may be able to come to conclusions for why specific decisions were made and possibly theorize what the alternate reality may have been. But why is this so important for us? Studying history will hopefully allow us to avoid making mistakes we. Fascism , Historian , History 1347 Words | 4 Pages. Illustrations Basic Principles Of Perspective Drawing For The Technical Illustrator By Kevin Hulsey Perspective Basics . A thorough understanding of the gatorade principles of 1-Point and essay on romance genre 2-Point Perspective is gatorade essay essential to creating an accurate, and visually appealing piece of art. A lay-person with no technical understanding of the principles of perspective drawing will nonetheless have an intuitive negative reaction to a piece of art in data, which something is amiss. Using the perspective techniques shown in the. Book of Optics , Cartesian coordinate system , Illustration 1162 Words | 5 Pages. INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE In an gatorade, attempt to obtain a clearer awareness of my own ethical perspectives , I completed the Problems With Marrying at a . Ethics Awareness Inventory. This inventory presented me with several questions into what I valued most and least as moral values.
In addition, the inventory presented two sample situations involving ethical considerations from essay, a management per-spective in on romance genre, a work environment. Through taking this inventory, I was able to gain an insight into gatorade essay, how my values and perceptions could. Axiology , Decision making , Ethics 1985 Words | 6 Pages. Perspectives of Diversity Paper Psych 535 This will be a paper . Essay On Thomas. discussing different diversity perspectives . Each perspective will be an analyzed about diversity. Each perspective will also explain the implications of the gatorade diversity perspective on human behavior in the workplace environment. Two perspectives that will be addressed will be fundamental diversity and cultural diversity. Fundamental Diversity. Belief , Cultural diversity , Culture 710 Words | 5 Pages. Conflicting Perspectives - Bias and Self Interest. Conflicting perspectives – bias and self interest More than anything, conflicting perspectives are the economics for extended result of bias and . self-interest When it comes to literature, conflicting perspectives are often woven artfully through the fabric of the text.
The Shakespearean tragedy ‘Julius Caesar’ and Rob Sitch’s film ‘The Castle’ are two such pieces of literature that examine a range of gatorade essay conflicting perspectives . Humans are innately biased and self-interested, and topics for extended it is our inability to separate a situation. Augustus , Cicero , Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Brunelleschi's Demonstration on the Principle of gatorade essay Perspective. Brunelleschi made a rediscovery of the concepts and principles of one point linear perspective , which he used intensively and extensively for . the ornamentation of his architectural ventures. Before Brunelleschi, others had understood the importance of perspective , but up until then, no one had succeeded in devising a mathematical formula for one point perspective . His discovery, use, and demonstration of one point linear perspective proved to be a major turning point in Renaissance art and essay genre architecture, and. Gatorade. Filippo Brunelleschi , Florence , Florence Cathedral 2172 Words | 6 Pages. Conflicting Perspectives - Snow Falling on Cedars. Intro: When determining ones perspective , you must take into account a person’s cultural, social background as well as their personal . experiences along with many other factors. Problems With. Although these factors are so important, human nature ultimately dictates that bias and self-interest contribute to these perspectives eventuating in conflict with another.
These ideals are represented through the character construction and narrative style displayed in David Gutterson’s “Snow Falling On Cedars” and gatorade essay the. Atticus Finch , Black people , Harper Lee 993 Words | 4 Pages. conflicting perspectives support this statement? Manipulation is present in any representation, as a result of an authors inherent bias . Mla Essay Citation Maker. towards their own perspective . Gatorade Essay. This bias causes an author to genre, attempt to influence the perspective a reader will take on the text, whether this influence is intentional or otherwise. Geoffrey Robertson is one such author, whos collection of essays titled The Justice Game contains a number of techniques in order to sway readers to support his perspective on the legal. Capital punishment , Death row , Geoffrey Robertson 1063 Words | 3 Pages.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective. Andrea Marshall July 21, 2011 Psych 14 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective According to theorist Sigmund Freud, there are . Gatorade. three perspectives a person may have that can shape their behavior; the “Id”, “Ego”, or “Super-Ego”. Each of these personalities can have a drastic affect on essay vs alexander a person’s decisions, attitude, and gatorade ultimately their relationships with others. Problems Young. One person can have the majority of their personality based on just one of these factors, or they can have a mixture of. A Great Way to Care , Jacques Lacan , Mother 1215 Words | 3 Pages. Gatorade. First-person Narrative and data Individuals Perspective. of changing perspectives in today's world. You are listening to Erin Carrot and joining me in gatorade, the studio is economics topics Karen Finch, a youth worker . from the Campbletown area, who specialises in adolescent psychology. Welcome to the program Karen.
K.F. Thank you, lovely to be here. Host Also joining us via the telephone is Mr Graeme Anderson, from the department of immigration, who will be sharing his thoughts on how learning of other's experiences can change an individuals perspective . Welcome to . Change , Colloquialism , Experience 1357 Words | 4 Pages. Perspectives of Horses of the gatorade essay Night by Margaret Lawrence. of perspectives . The significance of an individual's perspective changes by influences from people around and the change of age. . We would create fantasy worlds in which they live when life does not seem to go their way. In order to escape from reality is on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton sometimes necessary as it enables ones creativity to grow and dreams to go on, but when a person escapes too much from reality they may start to lose track of their lives and collapse and break down at the end. From two different perspectives of. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , English-language films , Meaning of life 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Melina Marchetta Explores the gatorade Idea of Changing Perspectives Through Her Characters in 'Looking for Alibrandi'. How Does She Achieve This? Changing perspectives is defined as the change of how an individual sees something or someone.
Melina Marchetta uses changing . perspectives in a variety of ways in her novel ‘Looking for Alibrandi’, highlighting that change is on thomas hamilton a lifelong process because no one is essay ever completely mature or knowledgeable, and that it can be unexpected and subtle or gradual and natural. Marchetta demonstrates this concept of change through her characters and certain events, experiences, perspectives and people they associate. Change , Feeling , Fiction 1259 Words | 4 Pages. thinking is a lot more than merely following a format for construing a paper, challenging assumptions, and observing different . perspectives , to Problems With Young Age, name a couple of biggies. It is still all a matter of gatorade what and how - the important, elusive dimensions rooted in values and abilities. Data Gcse. You could for gatorade, instance follow the pattern below and still praise some proto-Nazi perspective . The following six parts may be viewed as a rough outline for a research paper.
They also constitute the six dimensions that. Bias , Critical thinking , Logic 688 Words | 3 Pages. English Essay Wilfred Owen, through his poems, shows the harsh reality of human conflict and my family contrasts the gatorade portrayal of these conflicts with the reality. . With Marrying At A Young Age. Owen purpose is to challenges our thoughts and gatorade perspectives on war to show its true effects and stop the glorification that it receives in handling data gcse coursework, society. Gatorade Essay. This can be seen in his poem Dulce et Decorum Est as he causing us to question whether it really is sweet and decorous to die for With Young Age, ones country by showing the essay reality of my identity essay war through his personal experiences. Civilian , Dulce et Decorum Est , Grammatical person 836 Words | 3 Pages. Gatorade. Piero Della Francesca and the Use of Geometry in His Art. compelling display of how the best painting inevitably requires more than a little mathematics. Piero is noteworthy for us today because he was keen to use . On Thomas Jefferson Vs Alexander. perspective painting in his artwork. He offered the world his treatise on perspective painting entitled, De Prospectiva Pingendi (On the perspective for painting). The series of gatorade essay perspective problems posed and solved builds from the simple to the complex: in Book I, Piero introduces the idea that the apparent size of the object is its angle subtended. Baptism , Euclidean geometry , Flagellation 1401 Words | 4 Pages. ******** Choice 2: The struggle to restore honour and certainty Various text creators explore the ways that individuals are affected by honour and . certainly. In some cases, a specific “outlet” – music, sports, artistic endeavours – can restore perspective , and economics topics help people to regain their “balance” of what is and isn’t a priority in their lives.
Others explore how imbalances in honour and certainty may enhance negative feelings, which must be dealt with; perhaps through escape, or confrontation. Choice , Face , Individual 1373 Words | 5 Pages. Preparing for Teaching and Learning 1.1 Evaluate at least two perspectives on your own role and gatorade responsibilities. To define my role and . perspectives of my roles as a tutor I need to consider several factors, in on thomas vs alexander, what context has the question been asked, to whom is the respond directed and essay deciding what aspects of my role relevant within my answer They might just as well have asked, What is your own bias on this?, for each perspective is really a particular bias, based on how you ‘see’ the issue. Consciousness , Education , History of education 913 Words | 3 Pages. to record employees start and end time for each work day. Essay On Romance Genre. This was a unilateral decision by BA to introduce the swipe card because the staff was not . adequately consulted. Gatorade. (Palmer, Dunford, amp; Akin, Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach, 2008) As a result of the unilateral decision, BA’s employees went on a 24-hour strike which caused major problems for essay on thomas vs alexander, BA. BA had to cancel its services, which left 10,000 passengers stranded. Essay. It was apparent that there was a lack. Change management , Introduction , Management 926 Words | 3 Pages. is conflicting perspectives in the text?
Throughout the entire film we see the genre different perspectives that each character has . and essay how their lifestyles have ultimately shaped this. Each character shares their own point of mla essay view of life and around the meaning of the truth. This tends to cause some conflicting actions toward one another. Martin is a blind man who has viewed the world through sound and gatorade descriptions of the events occurring all around him his entire life. His perspective of the outside.
Belief , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Francisco Goya, The Third of May: Visual Elements. distance between them. Perspective - I see linear perspective with the vanishing point in the background where the land and . the citation maker sky meet. I also see a vanishing point where the hill meets the men that are witnessing the execution. There is one more vanishing point where the gatorade sand meets the hill. Citation Maker. Goya does a good job in this painting of essay creating a one-point perspective . Everything seems to get smaller as you look up the painting. I see some atmospheric/aerial perspective in this painting in the.
Color , Dead Men of Young Age Dunharrow , Emotion 1993 Words | 5 Pages. Question #1: Why do sociologists need different theoretical perspectives to explain marriage and family behavior? Why isn’t one . perspective sufficient? The reason why one perspective is not sufficient in essay, sociology is because there are all kinds of different perspectives that can explain and describe a certain subject and there are too many different types of opinions, variables, situations, etc. to essay, only have one type of gatorade essay theoretical perspective in Problems at a, sociology. Gatorade. Page 57, Question #2: Virtually every practical. Family , Marriage , Perspective 977 Words | 2 Pages. accounting from different perspectives , discuss some advantages and disadvantages of creative accounting, and explain a real life example of . creative accounting. Through these paragraphs I hope to essay genre, also touch upon some of the ethical issues involved in engaging in creative accounting practices. Definitions of Creative Accounting From Different Perspectives Blake (1998) provides four definitions of creative accounting provided from different perspectives . The first perspective was written by a business. Accountancy , Accountant , Asset 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Gatorade Essay. Philippines.
But I was wrong. The article dealt more about how wrong the Filipinos over-glorified Rizal and how the construction of Rizal as a National Hero . is poorly constructed. So, the ultimate question then is this: Did Constantino shift my perspective about Rizal? I feel that the information that I got from the article are additional information about Rizal and how should we treat him. I did not feel that this is an effort to overthrow Rizal because if we think about it, Constantino saved Rizal. Anticipatory repudiation , Breach of contract , Hero 953 Words | 3 Pages.
Green Mountain Resort Dissolves the Turnover Problem. away from thinking about citation maker, what is going on essay from an alternative perspective ? We can draw several conclusions about the statement if we only . Essay Jefferson Vs Alexander. draw upon one particular frame, then this will take us away from gatorade, thinking about what is going on from an alternative perspective . When a problem is mla essay viewed from gatorade essay, different perspectives we get a different view of the problem as well as different suggestions for solving the problem. Problems With. From the perspective of the consultant, the turnover problem had its advantages. Perspective , Problem of evil 673 Words | 3 Pages. Principle of Management Course: My Experiences. are three different perspectives that are used to analyze an organization. Gatorade. There are three different perspectives used to . My Family My Identity Essay. view organizational behavior and processes: Strategic-Design, Political and Cultural.
Initially, I was looking at the organization and the process of gatorade management from the political perspective . This perspective deals with the use of power and influence throughout the my family my identity organization. However, I also had to learn about the strategic- design perspective , which dealt with the. Facilitator , Intelligence , Learning 1791 Words | 5 Pages. How does Wilfred Owen reveal his personal perspective in essay, order to economics for extended essay, present a view on the challenges of life? Throughout his poetry, War Poems . and Others, Wilfred Owen exposes his prominent opinion on the challenges of life and more specifically war. War is a life-changing obstacle for gatorade, not only countries but also the men who are forced to go into war and the innocent men, women and children who are forced to be inextricably involved with the devastating outcomes. Owen reveals this idea of the Problems With at a Young challenges. Challenge , Life , New Universe 894 Words | 3 Pages. biases. Our “intuitive” judgment can betray us.
As with optical illusions, intuitive judg- others may see it more as a major risk to be managed). . Considering the issue through multiple frames—a “fresh lens”—can help provide important alternative perspectives . Essay. Beware of four common biases that can undermine good judgment (unwittingly): ments—by even the most seasoned professionals—can fall prey to economics, cognitive illusions, undermining good judgment. As discussed in the COSO paper, being aware of judgment. Audit committee , Board of directors , Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission 753 Words | 3 Pages. use of perspective . The use of lines is evident again when looking at the fine detail in the trees that surround this scene. On, a side note, . the tree that the essay old man is holding on vs alexander hamilton to appears to be minerature in size, as if her is this evil giant. Gatorade. Perhaps this is handling data gcse meant to symbolize their dominance and her vulnerability. Massys placed the buildings in gatorade essay, the background so they are proportional to the balanced figures in the foreground.
Also, it looks as if there is use on linear perspective , especially. Book of Optics , Composition , LOOK 1126 Words | 3 Pages. objects Value: the use of lights and darks Linear Perspective One-Point Perspective : all parallel lines in an architectural . space recede to a single vanishing point “facing a flat surface” Two-Point Perspective : “facing a corner or edge” Perspective Foreshortening: Diminishing in size of forms in space as they move away from the viewer to accurately depict spatial proportion **book wrong on Foreshortening** Atmospheric/Aerial Perspective non-linear means for giving illusion of economics topics for extended essay depth – usually. Color , Composition , Drawing 683 Words | 3 Pages. Essay. subordinates. We find it challenging to overcome the weaknesses because we don't want to dilute the associated strengths in the process of addressing the . weaknesses. On Romance. Yet, we can develop perspectives and work on them over a period of time to address their negative fallout. Essay. Go ahead and share a weakness using this perspective . It won't ever harm you.
FAILURES Don't use a phony failure experience. Essay On Romance Genre. Weakness, Setback and gatorade essay Failure Achievements are easy to write. Setbacks, failures and weaknesses. Failure , Failure rate , Management 667 Words | 3 Pages. the power of empathetic feelings. My Family Essay. When we feel empathy we feel other peoples emotional distresses. We try to essay, feel sympathetic towards the mla essay citation maker situation or the gatorade essay . person. When empathy comes into play we try to mla essay maker, solve the problem and take the other persons perspective on the problem.
An empathetic person feels what the other person is feeling and why. One can be empathetic towards fictional situations and characters. Empathy is an emotion that we strive to satisfy even if it means risking our lives or being very. Affect , Emotion , Empathy 1324 Words | 4 Pages. Book Analysis: To Kill a Mockingbird. Gatorade. can provide different perspectives and change how an maker, individual has to react in different situations. Resulting in an individual having a new . angle of how to perceive the world around them.
Experiences have a strong ability to influence and effect an individual’s perception of essay reality very quickly. This can be due to many things it can be seen in essay on romance, the book in the passage where Scout rolls in a tire when she stops she is right in gatorade essay, front of the Radley steps and she has a perspective that only she gets. By the Way , Change , Harper Lee 986 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Genre. i know why the gatorade caged bird sings character analysis. 9 83 Reading Skill: Analyze Perspectives Though autobiographies are written in first-person point of view, they often reflect two . Mla Essay. different perspectives . • the perspective of the writer at the time he or she experienced the events • the perspective of the writer looking back on the events years later. Directions: you read the selection, use the chart to record Angelou’s observations about Mrs. Flowers from both her childhood and essay adult perspectives . An example has been done for you. . Autobiography , Human , People 510 Words | 2 Pages. Twelve Angry Men highlights the importance of seeing things from more than one perspective . Discuss. Reginald Rose’s play Twelve Angry Men . emphasises the importance of seeing things from more than one perspective . Set in a New York jury room in 1957, Rose highlights how important it is Problems With Marrying Young Age that the jury discuss all of the evidence from the gatorade essay case in detail and data gcse coursework from multiple angles. Representative of this notion is the 8th Juror who is gatorade essay willing to acknowledge alternative views or interpretations. From. Circumstantial evidence , Court , Evidence 974 Words | 3 Pages.
Interrelating the essay on thomas jefferson hamilton Ps The relationships between the above definitions can be more involved than that. Some consider perspective to be a . plan (Lapierre), others describe it as giving rise to plans. Hedberg and Jonsson claim that strategies, by which they mean more or less well integrated sets of ideas and constructs are the causes the mold streams of gatorade essay decisions into patterns. It is also described as the framework to determine the actions of the organization. Honda’s strategy was not to go.
Competition , Organization , Perspective 609 Words | 3 Pages. conflicting perspectives represented in the texts you have studied? In your answer refer to Snow Falling on Cedars and ONE related text of your . choosing A conflicting perspective is a point of data gcse coursework view of either one or more people that is generally subjective which presents a form of opposition in opinion. The novel, ‘Snow falling On Cedars’ composed by essay, David Guterson in coursework, 1995 and the film ‘Crash’ composed by Paul Haggis in 2005 represents the concept of conflicting perspectives in different. Academy Award for Best Picture , Cedar , Conflict 1694 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment 2.1 Profitel Inc. Which perspective of leadership best explains the problems experienced in this case? Chapter 12, Leadership . In Organizational Settings, discussed five perspectives of gatorade essay leadership – (1) competency, (2) behavioral, (3) contingency, (4) transformation, and (5) implicit. The competency perspective of leadership best explains the problems experienced by Profitel. With At A. Profitel had many years of extreme profitability and minimal competition.
As competitors entered into the. Fiedler contingency model , Intelligence , Leadership 638 Words | 3 Pages. influenced my reading. This gives different perspectives and gatorade essay gives different biases throughout each perspective . Both heart of my family essay . darkness and things fall apart tell stories of and critique the nature of gatorade European colonization in Africa in my family essay, the 1800s. Story tellers of each are significantly different although having some similarities between each story. As both story tellers are created differently, a different narrative view also can be seen and thus a separate perspective of European colonization is presented. Africa , Chinua Achebe , Colonialism 477 Words | 2 Pages. | | |*The writer’s perspective is well-developed and clearly stated. | . | | |*The topic written about is controversial and timely. | | | |*All three sources contribute to the essay in gatorade essay, a meaningful way, and provide multiple perspectives on | | | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. realised 4. Essay Vs Alexander. An Emergent Strategy: which is/was not intended but realised The Planning Perspective Here, the essay assertion is that strategy . must be explicitly formulated before implementation, and Problems Marrying at a Age that only planned actions are strategy. Further, the argument is that unintended actions cannot be called strategy but 'muddling through'. Thus the motto for organisations is Think before you act. This perspective suggests that implementation requires careful allocation of responsibilities, resources.
Management , Perspective , Planning 518 Words | 3 Pages. ?The ramifications of an individual’s discovery can change their perspective of themselves and the world. The implications of one’s discovery . can, to essay, some extent, transform their views on themselves and essay on thomas jefferson hamilton the world around them. Perspectives may be shifted by the experiences that one encounters, or be affirmed as a result to one’s exposure to essay, the truth. In the prescribed text, Go Back to Where You Came From, a reality TV series directed by Ivan O’Mahoney, this notion is demonstrated through two opposing. Boat people , Concept , Daniel Keyes 1170 Words | 3 Pages. the first relates to perspective and my family my identity essay mathematics. The second and third parts describe what a painting should consist of to be made ideal. This . is often referred to essay, as the historia, which means the recipe to a perfect painting.
Alberti’s perception on beauty issues from the mind which gives harmony to art forms, the hand which informs the strength, sensitivity and delicacy of the my family essay figure and finally nature which forms the characteristics of the figure. The use of perspective is to compose a picture. Filippo Brunelleschi , Florence , Leon Battista Alberti 2300 Words | 6 Pages. change in his life which results in his perspective and gatorade essay point of view being altered. This metaphor provides the audience with an on thomas hamilton, understanding . that the boy has gone through a negative transformation to a positive transformation. This relates to the concept of change as the poet has gone through a sudden shift in his life to better himself for the future. The poem “My father began as a god” by Ian Mudie also shows the concept of gatorade change and changing perspectives . In the early stages, the poet idolised. 2001 albums , Change , Linguistics 1144 Words | 3 Pages. Frieda’s Fizz Balanced Scorecard Analysis. intangible measures provide better focus on the organization’s long-term strategies. This paper is an maker, attempt to analyze Frieda Fizz decision to utilize a . balanced scorecard as they expand into new geographic areas.
The strengths and weaknesses of each perspective are discussed along with the pros and cons of using such an approach. It is essay recommended that Frieda Fizz use this tool through its expansion phase, keeping in mind that whether such an approach succeeds or not depends on organizational support and. Essay On Romance. Balanced scorecard , Better , Business process 1163 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Phrases PHRASES TO SHOW DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES Looking through the lens of … Adopting a more macro perspective … . In the larger scheme of things … In the long run/short term … In the political realm… Looking at the (economic) aspect of gatorade … PHRASES TO INTRODUCE ALTERNATIVE VIEWS One may argue that … Critics claim that … Naysayers decry… (E.g. Naysayers decry the loss of culture in society) Ultra pragmatists / conservatives / radicals / luddites may assert that … While [Subject/Example]. Argument , Argument map , Critical thinking 524 Words | 3 Pages. Essay. flowers in our life that we do not water… 2. Fountain – Art has to be something unusual to stand out, a different interpretation or a different intent by . the artist himself. A good art in my perspective is something that is more than normal, more than the daily life or even something that changes my perspective looking at the world and gatorade this surely is creativity. Problems With Marrying. And if anyone could take a urinal and gatorade essay make it a fountain why didn’t they, why only essay jefferson hamilton, Duchamp?
3. Untitled – A blank piece of canvas may. Aesthetics , Art , Atomic bombings of gatorade Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1104 Words | 3 Pages. the King's daughter. Although Laurent de La Hyre chose a scene from a well known biblical story (which was typical during the Counter Reformation), it was . Essay. his portrayal of the scene itself that makes it unique from essay, other artworks. With his use of citation maker perspective , captivating colors, and his arrangement of delicately posed figures, the essay overall composition of The Finding of Moses gave me a sense of confusion and emotionalism that allowed me to connect to it on a very humanistic level. Painted with oil on. 17th century , Color , Emotion 950 Words | 3 Pages. How Is Conflict Shown in the Atonement by Ian Mcewan. In employing a different ‘’centre of Problems consciousness’’ when telling the story from a narrator’s perspective , the point of view of characters . usually shifts to different opinions. Gatorade Essay. Atonement by Ian McEwan, uses this style in his mode of narration to successfully build the story around the narrator, Briony and then shifts to Cecelia’s perspective allowing the responder to consider the ambiguity and data coursework reliability of gatorade essay Briony as a narrator. As a post–modern ‘coming of age’ text, we are never given the satisfaction. Problems At A Young. Ian McEwan , Maniac , Narrative 1203 Words | 3 Pages. illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface.
In linear perspective , the most common type, all parallel lines or . surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer (the horizon line of the picture), and associated objects are rendered smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem. Gatorade Essay. Atmospheric, or aerial, perspective creates the illusion of distance by the greater diminution of color intensity. Florence , Fresco , Leon Battista Alberti 947 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis Essay on Coronation of the essay jefferson Virgin. blocking the view of essay anything behind it (overlapping), the blur of detail of the far off mountains (atmospheric perspective ), and the use of . linear perspective . If a line is drawn from the top and bottoms of the buildings, the resulting lines will converge on a single point in the distance. The lines, called orthogonals, converging on a vanishing point are components of linear perspective . This drastically increases the appearance of depth within an artwork. The Coronation of the genre Virgin is proven. Art , Color , Eye 1023 Words | 3 Pages. professional and client perspectives . This definition is the professional perspective from the BACP: ‘Counselling takes place . Essay. when a counsellor sees a client in a private and confidential setting to With at a Age, explore a difficulty the gatorade essay client is gcse having, distress they may be experiencing or perhaps their dissatisfaction with life, or loss of a sense of direction and essay purpose.’ (BACP, 2009) It is important professionals understand the meaning of counselling and have a professional perspective so they work in a. Counseling , Definition , Nursing 1174 Words | 4 Pages. COM 537 Week 6 Communication Plan Final Proposal. Write a persuasive proposal submission of no more than 700 words to the CEO of Best Game Productions.
Complete the following in your persuasive proposal . submission: Describe the project in citation, terms the CEO can understand. Consider the CEO’s perspective , needs, and essay style of With at a Young communication. Usepersuasive communication to convince the CEO to take your suggested approach to solve Best Game Productions’ dilemma. The CEO must perceive the project as something the company needs. Considerthe. Audience , Bias , Communication 651 Words | 3 Pages. Detecting Media Bias Leah Reich HUM/114 June 13, 2013 Vincent Vera Detecting Media Bias To detect bias in a news story, people should investigate . Gatorade Essay. whether the story is essay on romance clear and accurate, has supported facts, has considered alternative perspectives and worldviews, has any hidden questionable assumptions, and whether or not there were any questions ignored while others were emphasized. Making critical evaluations and distinctions of news stories is gatorade important because the author writing the. Bias , Confidence , Critical thinking 693 Words | 3 Pages.
Indians by Jane Tompkins: How Bias Affect Ones Concept of History. History Whenever you are in any educational situation, you are subject to perspectives and bias of the instructors. In an essay . entitled Indians, by Jane Tompkins, it discusses how different biases may reflect upon one's concept of With Marrying at a Young history. It is imperative to realize that when learning, which generally involves someone's concept of history, we are consequently subject to that person's perspectives that may be a result of their upbringing. In the essay essay Tompkins regarding history. Belief , Bias , Debut albums 778 Words | 3 Pages. Mla Essay Maker. composition presents them focally alone, without any other people, and centered with the horizon.
They gaze towards the viewer and dominate the picture . spatially, by being on what seems to be a separate plane from the gatorade essay background which has a linear perspective . Much of the characteristics of the girl's facial features remind me of Leondardo DiCaprio's drawings because she has similar eyebrows, and has very perfectual body features like that of the High Renaissance. On a side note, the clothing worn by.
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How to gatorade, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and data gcse, easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary:
Read the article, one paragraph at a time. Gatorade Essay! For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). Essay On Romance Genre! If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. Gatorade! When you finish the essay article, read all the underlined sentences. Essay! In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below).
Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the my family my identity essay words of the sentence and the word order. Gatorade Essay! For more information, see video below. Don't forget to Marrying at a Age, use transition words to link your sentences together. Gatorade Essay! See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and data coursework, make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible.
Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and gatorade, the author. Genre! Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to gatorade, the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article “How the essay genre Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by essay historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the mla essay citation article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the gatorade essay author argues that the real reason for the start of the essay on romance genre Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the gatorade clash of cultures and maker, greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement.
In other words, what is the essay main point the writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and economics topics for extended essay, if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . Gatorade Essay! The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . Genre! The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source.
Men and Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the essay communication signals of the opposite Marrying at a Age gender. Response Essay about essay, Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to consider what is essay on thomas hamilton, effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the gatorade author's point and persuade the audience to on thomas jefferson, agree.
Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and gatorade, you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the mla essay rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for gatorade essay, Text, Reader, Author, Context, and handling data, Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to gatorade essay, understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of discussion of on romance genre that issue, the gatorade historical moment in time when the article is written, and topics essay, the moment in gatorade time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and my family my identity essay, organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis.
You can answer the questions to gatorade, help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is for extended essay, effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the reader?
How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the essay author is handling coursework, trying to make?
Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective?
How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the gatorade reader want to know more? Does the author explain enough about the essay jefferson hamilton history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is this essay effective or ineffective for gatorade essay, this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear.
See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is Problems With at a Age, very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of gatorade essay sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and on thomas vs alexander, use of language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . Essay! The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is gcse, ___________ and gatorade, the tone is citation maker, shown by ___________ . Gatorade! The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is Problems at a Age, constructed logically/illogically by ___________. Essay! The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is economics topics, effective or ineffective in proving the gatorade point ).
Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the for extended author’s life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. Gatorade Essay! For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of on thomas jefferson doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the gatorade essay author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by ___________ . The author's bias is mla essay maker, shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by gatorade ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of handling data gcse other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on essay, the reader's reaction are ___________.
I think the reader would react to this argument by handling data gcse ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. Gatorade! ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is Problems With Age, adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to gatorade essay, the author’s claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and mla essay citation, the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and specific.
It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and gatorade, analysis to genre, explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and gatorade, back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). Essay On Romance Genre! You will agree with part of the gatorade essay author's points and maker, disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper?
How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the gatorade essay author? How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is maker, new to you?
Do you know of gatorade essay any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of essay your response is related to your personal experience?
How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the gatorade links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________.
Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. My Family Essay! I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. Essay! I will use this article in handling data gcse coursework my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to gatorade, Men and on romance, Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on gatorade, Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics.
by Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for Young Age, your guide.
Is it necessary to gatorade essay, include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and Young, sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on gatorade essay, the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander future.
Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Essay! Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is topics for extended essay, that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. Gatorade! I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the mla essay maker drugs.
If the gatorade essay reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the on romance reasons to gatorade, allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the gcse subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.
Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and gatorade, cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to genre, write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name.
Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about essay, something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to economics, Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Gatorade! Search for mla essay citation maker, it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago.
How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on gatorade essay, How to do an essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Glad this is gatorade essay, helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here.
Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the essay on romance genre opportunity to be tutor by gatorade essay you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. Mla Essay Maker! All of this explaining is a great source for gatorade, anything. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. Citation Maker! If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and gatorade, the different sides of the argument.
Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of Problems With at a Young whether this is gatorade, good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about my family my identity, abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and gatorade essay, that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples.
Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is gcse coursework, what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of great help for me and my friends. Gatorade! Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. Essay Genre! I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs.
Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore!
I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of gatorade essay writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of my family essay your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to essay, write.
Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from essay on romance genre, United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to essay, see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. Maker! I am glad to essay, be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English.
Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. With Marrying Age! This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do.
Hello Professor Lynne. I have to essay, write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for gcse coursework, your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and essay, improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from topics for extended, Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in gatorade a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots!
Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for my family essay, me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou.
Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the essay instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. Essay Genre! My class is structured so that my students have to essay, plan before they write, and With at a Young, then get feedback from gatorade essay, peers before re-writing.
Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the data gcse coursework end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to gatorade, digest this information and start applying this in my work.
I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Essay On Romance Genre! Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. Gatorade! I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and economics for extended essay, found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger.
I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for gatorade, several years before coming to the U.S. to go to college and play American football. Essay Jefferson Vs Alexander! The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to gatorade, college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from essay, United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know.
My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from gatorade, United States.
B. Essay! Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into essay, a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on coursework, the effect of gatorade essay going to essay genre, 4th of July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and gatorade, helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper.
I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on essay on romance genre, these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from gatorade essay, United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to on romance, the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is gatorade essay, below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
Glad I helped you nico! My class is mla essay citation, just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and gatorade, very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Problems With Marrying At A Young! Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to gatorade, organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by topics for extended essay trying to figure out how to gatorade essay, teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. My Family! Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Gatorade! HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Introduction of gatorade company - UK Essays
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essay on seafaring [Published in Seafaring in the Contemporary Pacific Islands , edited by gatorade essay, Richard Feinberg. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1995.] Rotuma is one of the essay more isolated islands in essay western Polynesia. It is located at 12? 30'S, 177?E, some 465 km northwest of Cikobia, the northernmost island in the Fiji group (Woodhall 1987). It is a similar distance south of Tuvalu and west of Futuna, its closest neighbor to the east.
The nearest islands to the west are in Vanuatu, eight hundred kilometers distant. Legends suggest that Rotuma had intermittent contacts with Samoa, Tonga, Futuna and Fiji (Churchward 1939) prior to European intrusion. Other evidence indicates that Rotumans sailed to Tikopia (Bennett 1831, Firth 1961), Anuta (R. Feinberg, personal communication), Kosrae (J. Tobin, personal communication) and handling gcse possibly even to Raiatea in the Society Islands (Anonymous 1938). Nevertheless, the degree to which Rotumans were accomplished seafarers when first contacted by Europeans at the end of the eighteenth century is problematic.
Based on data collected by gatorade, early European visitors, it does not seem that seafaring in precontact Rotuma was as significant as in many other Polynesian societies (e.g., Nukumanu, see Feinberg this volume; for Sikiana see Donner this volume). Following European intrusion, however, Rotumans developed a seafaring tradition as crew members aboard European ships. Rotuman men eagerly signed aboard visiting vessels, soon acquiring a reputation for reliability and competence that made them favorites of European ship captains. Essay Jefferson Hamilton! As a result, a significant portion of Rotuman men gained extensive experience at sea. Gatorade! This had, and continues to have, a distinct effect on essay the culture and gatorade essay economy of the island. Sailors have been a major source of information about the mla essay citation outside world, thereby introducing and gatorade essay legitimating cultural changes, and have contributed considerably to a standard of living that is extraordinarily high for an isolated Pacific island. Since we are dealing with a heritage transformed from an earlier, precontact formation to one that has been shaped by European seafaring traditions, it is necessary to approach our subject historically. I begin by presenting background information on Rotuma and its environs, then I describe seafaring technology and traditions shortly after contact.
Finally, I provide an essay account of Rotuman engagement on European vessels and its effects on Rotuman culture. The island of Rotuma is of volcanic origin, comprising a total land mass of forty-three square kilometers and rising to gatorade essay, a height of approximately two hundred meters.  It is surrounded by a fringing coral reef that attains a maximum width of 1.5 kilometers on the extreme east end of the island and narrows to only a few meters off the mla essay maker west end. A number of offshore islands and islets, formed by volcanic cones, are distributed around the main island. The largest of these, the island of Uea, off the northwest end of the mainland, consists of seventy-three hectares; it was inhabited until the gatorade essay 1930s. Two other islands off the west end of the mainland, Hatana and Hafliua, are much smaller but are important sources of handling data gcse edible birds and birds' eggs. These islands lay several kilometers away and require journeys across open sea. Several islets, ranging in size from twenty-three hectares to only a few square meters, are situated within the fringing reef. The larger ones are used as coconut plantations and grazing preserves for domestic animals.
They can be reached by walking across the reef at gatorade low tide, or by canoe, punt, and launch when the tide is high. Rotuma's dominant inshore submarine feature is an extensive sand and coral bank extending eight kilometers to the west and northwest of the island, with the detached Whale Bank Reef off its western end ( see Figure 6.1 ). Whale Bank Reef is With Marrying Young Age, approximately 5 by 1.6 kilometers, with an gatorade average depth of seventeen to eighteen fathoms. A current, setting west-southwest at speeds of topics less than one knot, occurs most of the year (Fisheries Division n.d.:3). Rainfall on the island averages 3,550 millimeters per year with no rainless months, although dry periods of up to gatorade, three months occasionally occur (Woodhall 1987:1). The soil is very fertile, giving Rotuma a reputation for my family my identity, growing coconuts and other produce of exceptional size and essay quality. From April to December the prevailing winds blow consistently from the southeast. From December through April, winds are variable, sometimes blowing hard from the northwest. Hurricanes, which strike the essay island occasionally, usually occur during the latter period.
The island's resident population is approximately twenty-seven hundred individuals, but over six thousand Rotumans now live in Fiji, which has political jurisdiction over Rotuma, and gatorade essay perhaps an additional one thousand to two thousand Rotumans live in Australia, New Zealand, North America and Europe. Rotuman Seamanship at Contact and in the Early Nineteenth Century. Rotuma was discovered in 1791 by Captain Edward Edwards in mla essay citation maker HMS Pandora while he was searching for essay, the Bounty mutineers. Edwards remarked on the great number of paddling canoes coming out to meet his vessel. He wrote that although Rotumans knew of Tonga (the Friendly Islands), their canoes were not so delicately formed nor so well finished as at the Friendly Islands, but more resemble those of the maker Duke of York's, the Duke of Clarence's and the Navigators' Islands (Thompson 1915:65). The next recorded visit, in 1797, was by Commander Wilson in the missionary ship Duff . Wilson reported that several canoes, containing from three to seven persons each, greeted his vessel. Essay! He commented, Their single canoes (for we saw no double ones) were nearly the same in all respects as at the Friendly Islands, being of the same shape, sewed together on gcse coursework the inside, and decorated in essay the same manner seemed not so neat and well finished (Wilson 1799:292). In the next two decades, a great many whaling ships stopped at Rotuma for provisions. Sailors found the island and mla essay its gentle people attractive, and more than a few deserted there.
Nevertheless, René Lesson, writing about his visit during 1824, commented that lack of contact with other islands and visiting European ships had left the island intact. He remarked that Rotumans welcomed Europeans who settled on gatorade essay the island with extraordinary eagerness (Lesson 1838-9:415). Lesson opined that the my identity islanders must be skilled fishermen because of the huge nets they used, which he estimated at more than forty feet long. He made the following remarks about Rotuman canoes: The canoes (vaka) used by these islanders have a roughly carved outrigger. Essay! They are enclosed and pointed fore and on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton aft, and driven by oval paddles which are also carved without much taste. We saw only one small double canoe (aoe) which came in the evening. The mast was notched and gatorade set up on citation maker a piece of wood which linked the two canoes. Gatorade Essay! It held up a sail of my identity very coarse matting.
The canoes were covered by gatorade essay, a platform which prevented sea water from getting into the hull and which supported a shelter consisting of an awning of flexible branches. On the whole, it was a poorly designed vessel, and for extended long-distance navigation was probably undertaken in larger canoes (Lesson 1838-9:431, translated from the French by Ella Wiswell). The first European to write about Rotuman navigational knowledge was Peter Dillon, in 1827. He reported that Rotumans knew of several islands in their neighborhood, including the islands of Vythuboo [Vaitupu] and essay Newy [Nui], in what is now Tuvalu. He stated that Vaitupu abounded with white shells much in demand on Rotuma and that Rotumans made frequent voyages there for the purpose of obtaining them. Data! Dillon speculated that it was on such voyages that Rotuman sailors got lost at sea and drifted to such places as the Feejees, Tucopia, and the Navigators' Islands (Dillon 1829:103). He mentioned that natives from both Vaitupu and Nui were present on Rotuma, expecting to sail for home in a few weeks.
He was unable to obtain information concerning wind, weather, and tides from gatorade essay, his informantsNtwo renegade sailorsNbut assumed that westerly winds prevailed at certain times of the year, enabling Rotumans to my identity, sail to Tonga and essay the Navigators' Isles. He based his assumption on the fact that he met a Rotuman in Tonga whom he returned home (Dillon 1829:103-104). Robert Jarman arrived on Rotuma in 1832 aboard the whaler Japan . His account suggests that although Rotumans built large double canoes they were not especially capable seamen: In many huts we observed canoes of my family my identity essay immense size and length, or more properly double canoes, about eight feet apart, and secured together by gatorade essay, upright and cross pieces strongly bound with lashings made of the cocoa-nut husk. I should suppose these canoes capable of carrying from one hundred and essay on thomas jefferson fifty to two hundred men; and are from sixty to ninety feet in length. Gatorade! I was led to enquire for what purpose the natives had constructed them, apparently so unwieldy and useless, as they must have cost them with the tools they possess, such infinite time and labor. They are formed of a single tree of jefferson immense size, hollowed out, and gatorade partly decked over from the stem aft. Curiosity or a spirit of enterprise seems to essay, have prompted them. Soon after the island was discovered, the natives were puzzled to ascertain how a ship could come there. Consultations were held by the chiefs, and essay it occurred to them, that there must be something in the horizon, through which the ship entered; therefore it was resolved to fit out many canoes, and send them in search, as the only method of discovering it.
Many were accordingly sent to sea upon this strange expedition, and Problems Marrying so soon as they lost sight of their native land, were driven by the wind to the neighbouring islands; many undoubtedly perished, some reached the Fejee Islands, and others were driven as far to gatorade, the westward as Santa Cruz, where their descendants are still living with the inhabitants. Since Mr. With Marrying Young! Emery [an English deserter who took up residence ca. 1827] has resided among them, many have put to sea, and no trace of them have [sic] ever been discovered (Jarman 1838:183-184) George Cheever, who kept a log of the whaling ship Emerald, which visited Rotuma in 1835, also reported that Rotuman canoes were rough concerns, displaying little in the way of ornamentation.
He mentioned one large double canoe, about 100 feet long, which was presumably the largest on the island (Cheever 1834-1835). A more elaborate early description of Rotuman canoes is provided by gatorade essay, Edward Lucatt, who was there in 1841. He wrote: The native canoes are of peculiar construction. They have no trees high enough of the proper wood to form the main body of the canoe, like the New Zealanders; they are therefore built out of several pieces, which are sewed together with a sort of twine, of their own manufacture, made from the husks of the cocoa-nut. They are deep and mla essay citation maker narrow, somewhat angularly formed; the thwarts for the pullers to sit upon are made fast to the gunwales, and, to prevent the canoe from capsizing, they have an gatorade outrigger attached. Handling Gcse Coursework! They are unsightly-looking things, wanting altogether the essay lightness and grace of a New Zealand canoe; their paddles, too, are clumsy and economics heavy, and lack the symmetry and gatorade grace of the New Zealanders. There are several large double canoes on data gcse coursework the Island, connected together by a strong platform; and in former times, when the population of the country exceeded the means of support, or it was feared that it would do so, oracles were consulted, and at their instigation a party would start off in one of these canoes in search of fresh land: sometimes failing in their object, they would find their way back again in a most miserable plight; but the result of the generality of such expeditions was never known.
Of late years, there have been no adventures of the kind, and these ship-canoes from gatorade, their long disuse are fast falling to decay; there are seventeen or eighteen of them upon the Island, carefully built over to protect them from the weather. Topics For Extended Essay! These ship-canoes are no two of the same length; the longer one will be from eighty to ninety feet, while the smaller, answering the purpose of an gatorade outrigger, would not exceed fifty or sixty feet: each canoe has from four to five feet beam, but they have no floor; and, looked at separately, without their stem and stern pieces, they would be taken for troughs. They are kept about six feet asunder by cross beams lashed and otherwise made fast to the gunwales of both canoes; the citation beams are planked over, which furnishes a deck of from fourteen to essay, sixteen feet in my identity breadth. Both canoes are entirely covered in, and essay there are small hatchways with sliding covers. When a party has determined upon an exploring expedition, they build a house upon the main deck and With Age stow their provisions, c. in the holds of the canoes. Their sails are made of a species of essay rush marled together: in form they resemble the citation maker New Zealanders, being when set like an gatorade essay inverted triangle (Lucatt 1851:177-178). C.F.
Wood, visiting Rotuma on a yachting cruise some 30 years later, confirmed the disuse into which double canoes had fallen. He reported seeing large double canoes, similar to those he had seen in Fiji and Tonga, lying in sheds on Marrying at a Young Age the beach. He was told that no one then alive, nor their fathers before them, had ever seen those canoes in the water. No one knew how to manage them at sea, nor did anyone have knowledge of sail making (Wood 1875:15). An old chief told Wood that in gatorade the past such canoes would sail off, loaded with men, never to be heard of again. Wood commented that he knew of canoes from economics topics for extended, Rotuma landing on the northern coast of Vanua Levu, where half-breed descendants could be found. He claimed that Rotumans regularly sailed to Tonga to obtain Cypraea ovula, a white shell used to decorate chiefs' canoes and houses. Gatorade Essay! They did not buy these from the economics topics essay natives of Tonga, Wood wrote, but they themselves fished for them on outlying reefs (Wood 1875:25-26). 
Writing some years later, William Allen reported that canoe building once took up a great deal of the men's time.  He suggested that double canoes took many years to build, as many as eight or ten (Allen 1895). During his visit in 1896, however, J. Stanley Gardiner found inquiries into oceangoing voyaging to be futile. Gardiner wrote that the double canoe was already forgotten and that canoe sailing was a lost art, though the Rotuman language possessed all the terms necessary for it. He also mentioned finding a steer oar belonging to a canoe he estimated to have been sixty feet in length (Gardiner 1898:459). Gardiner further reported that the names of stars are as a rule fanciful now, but Marafu [the paramount chief] pointed me out some named according to the different islands (Gardiner 1898:407).  Rotuman Canoes in Detail. The most extensive information recorded about Rotuman canoes is contained in Gardiner's account and the field notes of gatorade essay Bishop Museum ethnologist Gordon MacGregor, who visited Rotuma in 1932. Handling Coursework! Gardiner reported that at the time of his visit two kinds of canoes were being made: a big one used for fish-driving, called tafaga [ taf'aga ], and a small one used inside the reef, called tavane [ täväne ].  Taf'aga varied from gatorade essay, twenty-five to my family my identity essay, thirty-five feet in length, took from eight to twelve paddlers, and gatorade could carry up to my family, twenty people. Regarding canoe construction, Gardiner wrote: A suitable tree is essay, selected, cut down, and on romance roughly shaped.
It is then properly allowed to lie for a few months, after which it is dragged down to the hanua noho (village) which is going to build it. It is then hollowed out to the desired shape, the essay ends being left solid and the walls up to 2 inches thick. Essay Genre! In the essay centre the sides would not be strong enough to essay, bear the strain, and gatorade so are removed, fresh planks being fitted into their place. These are fixed by sinnet, holes for the lashings being bored through the planks; wedges are then driven in between from the inside to make the whole watertight. The sinnet makes the holes watertight, but pieces of sponge from the reef are driven in to topics for extended, ensure it. There is a distinct bow and stern, the former sharp and pointed up, the latter blunter and gatorade curved downwards. The first three feet of the deck at each end is covered. The breadth along the whole centre is about the mla essay maker same: 1 1/2-2 feet.
The side towards the gatorade essay outrigger, or sama, is slightly straighter [figure 6.2 C] than the other. Maker! The outrigger is about 5 feet or rather less away; it is not quite half as long as the whole canoe. It lies usually on the right, or starboard side, and consists of a post of light wood slightly pointed at one end. This is supported by two hard wood beams, driven into it, lashed across the canoe itself; the bend at essay right angles, which is necessary, is cut out, but can be, and With was, frequently induced in the growth of the timber. Another beam runs just above the bend between these; to gatorade essay, it rods of economics topics hard wood are lashed, previously driven into the post underneath [figure 6.2B].
A platform is generally made to take the gatorade paddles and carry the nets between the canoe and the outrigger; the paddle blade is of an oval form, 2 feet long by about 6 inches broad. The bailer is my family my identity, of the regular type, of one piece of wood with handle in the centre, and shaped to fit the canoe. The launch of one of these used to be the occasion of a feast. Essay! Kava was placed for the gods, after one of whom it was named and then supposed to be under his special protection. The tavane is only about essay, 12 feet long and 8-10 inches deep; at the top it is gatorade essay, usually about 6 inches broad, but bellied out considerably underneath. The outrigger is about 8 feet long and supported merely by two crooked sticks, lashed across the on romance genre top of the canoe. The oie, or drum, is gatorade, always stationary, and usually of very large size; it has generally a special roof. Its general shape [figures 6.2E and 6.2F] is the ordinary, but it is much more bellied and on thomas cut out deeper at the ends than is customary in Fiji (Gardiner 1898:457-459). FIGURE 6.2. Rotuman canoe features: A--side view of the tafaga , showing planks let in at gatorade the side, also bow and stern; B--section of the tafaga through one of the supporting beams of the sama , or outrigger; C--side view of the sama to show method of fixing; D--top view of the tavane (the thin lines at the sides show the bulge of the canoe); E--longitudinal section through the oie , or drum; F--transverse section of the oie . (After Gardiner 1898:458) In a section of his notes labeled canoes, MacGregor recorded the names of canoe types and parts. His Rotuman consultants told him that they called large double canoes ahai [ 'ahai ]. Some of them thought the name came from the English word ahoy, used by English sailors, a derivation favored by C.M.
Churchward, who wrote the definitive dictionary of the Rotuman language (Churchward 1940:348). MacGregor was skeptical, however, since he could not elicit an alternative term. The traditional term, he wrote, would not have died out so quickly. Gardiner also reported that the term 'ahai was used for on thomas vs alexander hamilton, large double canoes, although he spelled it ahoie ; like MacGregor, he doubted that it derived from English (Gardiner 1898:459). Note that Lesson, who visited Rotuma in 1824, provided the name aoe for a small double canoe he encountered (see his quotation above). Gatorade! This suggests that it was an indigenous term rather than a borrowing from English.
MacGregor wrote in his notebook that no one on the island remembers seeing a double canoe. Nevertheless, one of citation maker his Rotuman consultants told him that 'ahai were made from five or six planks to essay, a side, according to on romance, the size of the tree, and that they were about five to gatorade, five and one-half feet tall. He also told MacGregor that 'ahai were fitted with a deck and deck house, and with a mast guyed by a rope of the vine fanga fea [ fagfea ].  Churchward lists the Rotuman word samtutuki for the smaller double canoe (Churchward 1940:305), which MacGregor described as constructed of two hulls ( vaka ) joined by three crosspieces ( kiata ). The hulls were about eight feet high according to MacGregor's consultants, and were completely covered over to keep out water. The covering had a trapdoor to permit access to provisions.
Hulls were built of handling gcse five pieces, including a keelpiece, side planks, and narrower top planks. The planks had flanges and were sewn together. Stitches tying the planks together were held fast by driving small wooden wedges under the knots. Hulls were longer than one plank length, and the ends, which were cut diagonally rather than square, were also sewn together. Poles were set up in gatorade essay the hulls and at a Young Age the deck ( pupui ) was held up on gatorade them about a fathom above the canoes' top planks. A lean-to hut was built on the deck, with the ends of the roof resting on the deck. The mast ( pou ) was set on the deck, forward of the house and guyed to the canoes. In some instances the mast was constructed so that it could be shifted, and in some instances it was permanently fixed.
Sails ( läe ) were made of about twenty ordinary floor mats sewn together. They had two wings, or points, in the fashion of Fijian canoes. The steering oar ( hose ) was worked on the starboard hull. MacGregor's consultants told him that samtutuki carried about one hundred men, but it must be cautioned that they were reporting about the construction of a canoe type that had long since disappeared. Like Gardiner, MacGregor also recorded that large, single-hulled outrigger canoes were called tafaaga [ taf'aga ] and smaller ones tavane [ täväne ]. Churchward lists both of these as types of outriggers, but includes an additional term, karia , for large outrigger canoes (Churchward 1940:238,319,327). MacGregor reported that täväne were made with the fore outrigger boom shorter than the for extended aft one as an aid to steering. This gave the canoes an appearance of toeing in when viewed from above. The stern is the wider part of the gatorade canoe because of the narrowness of the whole canoe for a man of any size to sit in and because it handles more easily, Macgregor wrote. He also noted, contrary to Gardiner's observations thirty-six years before him, that most canoes had their outrigger on the port side. This is confirmed by John Bennett, an American married to a Rotuman woman and an accomplished sailor. For Extended! He lived on Rotuma for seven years while employed as a teacher at the high school.
According to Bennett, outriggers today are commonly mounted on the port side, as most people are right-handed and gatorade find paddling on starboard more comfortable and unobstructed if the outrigger is mounted on my family essay the left. Turning with the paddle is also easier (J. Bennett, personal communication). An account of the gatorade steps involved in building taf'aga was provided MacGregor by a craftsman from the village of Salvaka: The Rotumans build two sorts of large outrigger canoes, the tafaka oro [possibly taf'aga 'i'oro 'shark fishing canoe'] and handling data coursework the tafaka fonfonu [ taf'aga fonfono 'canoe with built up sides'].  The first is a three piece canoe with a deep hull, the second a five piece canoe with a shallow keel piece and gatorade essay built up sides, two planks to a side. When the whole body of the canoe is considered these canoes are actually five and seven piece canoes, but the last two pieces are deck pieces and not in the walls of the canoes. The difference in structure is determined by the material the my family my identity carpenters have to work with. If a tree selected is not thick enough to give the proper depth to the hull, a five piece canoe is gatorade essay, built. The machau [ majau ], or head carpenter, selects the tree from which the proposed canoe is to handling data coursework, be built.
Then a koua or feast is held, called foiang fua [ faiag fua 'felling of a tree for the keelpiece'], at which is announced the intention of building a canoe, and whether it will be fuaora or not, that is the way of constructing a tafakora . When the work is started the machau may make the stern first or hollow out the entire log. When the tree is hollowed out to form the fua or bottom piece of the hull, a second koua is held, called Saragfua [ sarag fua 'completing the gatorade keelpiece']. The fua is then finished off and the beveled edge is made for joining the piece to be laid on top. Economics Essay! In the five piece canoe this keel? [sic] is the vaka fonfonu [ vak fonfono 'canoe with built up sides'], and gatorade the beveled edge is topics for extended, made to join the gatorade essay fonu. ?? [sic] In this case, the on romance genre fua or keel piece is made much broader and essay shallower. There are some canoes built with two rows of fono , which makes a seven piece canoe. It has been stated that three piece canoes are in reality of essay on thomas hamilton five pieces. It can be seen here where the extra pieces come in. When the fua is made the stern and bow are cut to shape, including the upright piece of the prow, called the moa . Often this is essay, impossible due to handling data, the size of the tree. Then deck pieces of purou are made to fit on top of the stern and bow of the level fua . Essay! These are necessary to carry out the height of the canoe established by building on my family essay the fono or wall pieces. In the essay standard three piece canoe, these should join at each end with the high bow and stern of the fua . The fono , probably originally one strip, is now made of three to each side.  The center fono which is laid on the completed fua first, is handling data coursework, called the raurara . When these two center pieces are laid a koua is held which is known as the fuakiag [ fuakiag ] fono.
Then the gatorade end fono , two to each side which connect the raurara with the stern and With at a Young bow, are laid on. Gatorade Essay! These are the fonchichaki [ fon jijaki 'sideboards slipped into for extended essay, place']. Gatorade! When these are joined the sokoag fono koua , or joining the other fono on, is made. Next come the roa , if the canoe is to be a five piece one. These are the top planks or strips that are set over mla essay citation, the fono to complete the walls. Essay! Then the bow and stern pieces are put on genre (these are called porou [ purou ] in one place and essay puka in essay on romance another, puka being name given by gatorade, Ismeli [another informant] as well.) The canoe is now fitted together and all the flanges are sewn down. The machau inspects all edges to see if there is genre, a perfect fit. To insure that all the planks fit smoothly, the sides that are laid against each other are smeared with paint made of ura [ 'ura Indian mulberry] or pandanus mixed with lime.
The pandanus root is first pressed with water. This paint is smeared on the edge of the fua and essay then the fono is laid on. On Thomas Jefferson Vs Alexander Hamilton! Any unevenness will show up by its lacking marking with paint. Then the gatorade entire canoe is mla essay citation maker, unleashed and the pieces taken off. Each piece is trimmed and smoothed to gatorade, make it thinner and lighter. The inside portion is cut out more carefully. All holes for my family my identity essay, lashing are inspected, but they must not be touched again after corrections are made from the preliminary lashing of the canoe. When the fua was made, they carefully left at each third of a fathom in the hull of the canoe, a pair of raised knobs or rests which are called susu . They are not in essay the exact center of the bottom of the canoe but about six inches apart.
These form the rests for the rib supports or tokai of the canoe. They are set obliquely upright on mla essay these and are lashed under the uppermost edge of the puka or roa . The seats, manu , are set above pair [sic] of tokai . There should be three seats to each fathom of the gatorade canoe. The seats are cross boards lashed over the gunwale or roa . Usually a curved seat is carved out and also a small back three or four inches in height. The back of the seat is called the kiat rot . The stern piece of puka has the seat of the helmsman, the seat - marae or maraeheta . This puka is the last piece that is set in the hull of the canoe when she is put together. It has two arms or fork [sic], as has the hamilton bow piece, which come out and join the end of the roa. These are known as the U Rua ne Puka ['u rua ne puka ], the hands of the essay puka . The bow and the stern piece are variously fashioned after the ideas of the machau , but in general the first piece usually has the butt of a bowsprit? [sic] or upright piece foremost. This is called the data coursework moa . Both pieces have a series of small truncated knobs from the point to the raised portion or seat.
These are the moa ne puakta , and gatorade correspond to the decoration on Samoan bonito canoes and paopao. Very rarely I have seen cowrie shell attached to them. A wooden bailer, tatahet [ tata ], is made for each canoe, in the shape of economics for extended essay a grocer's sugar scoop, with the handle inverted or within the bowl. The outrigger, sama , is gatorade, attached with booms, as in essay on romance genre the tavane , and when all is gatorade essay, finished the final koua , avahiag tafaga [ a'vahiag taf'aga ] (finishing the canoe) is given for topics essay, the occasion. The tafaka is essay, taken out for fishing, but on this trip, no one must eat any raw fish. The catch is brought together, cooked and eaten in one place. This feast of the fish also removes the tabu against women associating with the canoe.
This is primarily laid upon pregnant women who are forbidden to sit on the canoe or stepping over it or even approaching it. Other women are less seriously regarded. If in the process of my family my identity essay making the canoe a worker is cut and blood flows, a koua is held, hapagsue [ hapagsu ]. So also if a part is broken or cut so thin that the axe comes through, a koua is gatorade, held to stop the bad luck. The place where the canoe is built is tabu during the first trip out. No one is allowed to topics for extended, play there, and essay it would bring the worst sort of bad luck, armu [ armou ], if blood were shed on it. Armu is bad luck, no fish, shedding of blood, or some bad happening (Macgregor 1932). The canoe associated with this description, inspected by MacGregor, was 33 feet long, 1.5 feet at the widest part, and twenty inches deep.
MacGregor made a list of outrigger parts. Data Coursework! Table 6.1 gives both MacGregor's terms and Churchward's corresponding dictionary entries: TABLE 6.1. Rotuman canoe lexicon. rorara, raurara, fono. upper end pieces. inside post supports. projections on gatorade ends. puket e taumuri.
* MacGregor notes that the puka is the part that runs from the end of the roa on essay one side around the stern or bow to the end of the roa on the other side. Gatorade Essay! It should be of one piece. He adds that this implies it is not necessarily the whole stern piece. (MacGregor 1932) ** lit. 'body of the canoe' MacGregor also provided a list of wood types used in the construction of genre a canoe. The ratau [ ratu'a ] tree was used for the hull of a canoe; the outrigger and gatorade essay paddle [ hose ] were made from penau wood ( Thespesia populnea L., Pacific rosewood tree); the my family my identity essay outrigger boom from hau (hibiscus) wood; and essay the outrigger brace from on thomas jefferson, either hau wood or bamboo. Gatorade Essay! Paddles were 4.5 to essay, 5 feet long, with a blade from two to two feet four inches; MacGregor described them as flat on one side and rounded on the other (Macgregor 1932). This may suggest more uniformity of construction than was the case. Today, according to John Bennett (personal communication), hulls may be built from hefau (Callophyllum), 'ulu ( Atrocarpus altilis, breadfruit), togoi ( Terminalia catappa L.), 'ura ( Morinda citrifolia L.), ratu'a ( Erythrina variegata L.) or sa'a trees,  from which most paddles are now made. Bennett suggests that sa'a is used for paddles today because it is light, and essay much easier to handling data gcse coursework, shape than paddles made of penau . He speculates that this may reflect a lack of strength and endurance among present-day paddlers as compared with the past. For caulking ( pulu ) MacGregor recorded breadfruit sap had been used, but a substance produced from the ripe seed of the pipi fruit ( Atuna racemose Raf.) was a recent innovation that proved superior. The seed is pressed into a red watery fluid in the hand with a rock.
It is worked into the seams where it becomes very hard and holds fast. Macgregor also noted that pandanus root was pressed with water and mixed with lime to make a marking paint for carpenters. His notes contain detailed drawings of lashings (Macgregor 1932). Based on hull shape, outrigger attachment, and proximity, Hornell concluded that Rotuman canoes were an adaptation of a small canoe used on the northern Tuvalu island of Nanumea (Hornell 1936:281), but this conclusion is disputed by McQuarrie, who makes a strong case for gatorade essay, their having a closer relationship to With Young Age, the canoes of Tonga and gatorade Samoa (McQuarrie 1980). Fishing with Canoes. Gardiner and MacGregor also provide the mla essay citation maker most thorough accounts of Rotuman fishing techniques, including hook and line, fish traps of various types, and nets. Since Rotuma is gatorade, blessed with extensive fringing reefs, fish are abundantly available without resort to deep-sea fishing for all but a few isolated villages. Whether deep-sea fishing was ever a major factor in Rotumans' exploitation of marine resources is uncertain.
The position of master fisherman ( tautei ) was institutionalized on Rotuma. Each district had a tautei who was in charge of fishing expeditions. The position belonged to specific kin groups ( kainaga ) who were thought to have special abilities ( mana ). Some villages had their own tautei who led expeditions limited to the village. Tautei titles derive from fishing activities. Coursework! For example, according to Elisapeti Inia, retired Rotuman schoolteacher and authority on Rotuman language and customs, the title Reuas derives from räe ia'uas 'to see a shoal of gatorade fish'; Tokoar from tok 'o'oar ta 'the canoe used as a receptacle during fish drives'; Tokroa from economics for extended, tok roa 'long pole' (used to direct communal fishing activities); and gatorade essay Urakmat from ur'ak mat 'to respect + wet', suggesting the essay importance of following taboos associated with fishing (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). Gardiner reported that Rotuman fish-hooks were generally crude. He described them as follows: The fe, or shark-hook, was made from a shrub, the tiere, which, when it reached the height of essay about 3 feet, was twisted into an open knot, with a diameter of about 5 inches; it was then allowed to grow for economics topics for extended essay, about two years before being cut. The hook was then shaped, and a piece of hard wood spliced on as a barb projecting inwards.
The bait was tied on over the barb; the fish working at this, as the wood was springy, gradually got its jaw between the barb and the stem of the hook. On being struck the barb caught in the gills, and the fish was hauled up sideways. A similar hook, but smaller, the oiniafa, was used for catching a large species of rock cod, the roog. Gatorade! Small round hooks were cut out of pearl shell or turtle bone, 1-2 inches in diameter, and mla essay citation maker termed ovi [ 'avi ]; a barb was always cut on the outside. Gatorade! Those of pearl shell for certain fish were not baited, nor towed behind the canoe. Problems Marrying At A Young! Proper spinning baits are termed pa [ poa ], and were of two kinds, the one large, of pearl shell fixed on bone 4 inches, or more, long, and the other small, 1-2 inches, of pearl shell alone. Essay! Both had underneath a hook of turtle shell or bone, and at the end a few short white feathers of the tavek [ täväke ], or boatswain bird, sticking out. Tjija [ Jija ], long fish with very narrow jaws [garfish], almost too small for essay, any hook, are caught by a lump of spider's web at the end of a line on a long bamboo, when the tide is essay, coming in. The teeth are numerous and long, and cannot disentangle themselves (Gardiner 1898:425).
MacGregor provided additional information about spider web fishing: The spider web. is caught up from the corner of the my family house by twisting on the end of gatorade essay a stick. The web is my family essay, made into a ball and colored with charcoal so that it will show up black. Charcoal of the leifau [ hefau ?] is used, called mahala. This ball is then tied on gatorade essay the end of the fish line. The fishing was done with a long bamboo pole 16'-18' and with a line longer than this. Topics Essay! The fish were only caught in a few places in Rotuma, one of them being off the reef, another off the islet Afngaha [Afgaha] off Noatau. The pole was held so that the ball of black web was suspended just over essay, the water, and maker allowed to blow back and forth in the wind. The chiachia or chi'chia [ jija 'garfish'] is a small long fish with a very long and thin mouth with very fine teeth.
It would jump out of the water to bite at the web and gatorade be caught by its teeth in the mesh (MacGregor 1932). Gardiner described several techniques for catching fish on the reef, mostly involving traps and nets. Problems At A! In three instances he mentioned the gatorade essay use of canoes: while turtle fishing, during fish drives, and when catching flying fish. For turtle fishing, Rotumans used sennit nets, according to Gardiner. A net was put down in a reef passage just before the handling gcse tide began to ebb. Gatorade! Canoes were stationed at each end of the genre net, and when a turtle was seen to go into it, a man from each canoe dived after it, seized it by the front flippers and turned it over essay, so that it was compelled to come to the surface (Gardiner 1898:426). Data Gcse Coursework!  MacGregor confims this description, adding that the fishermen would frighten the gatorade turtles into the nets by drumming on the sides of their canoes. He also describes an alternative method of turtle fishing, involving taking canoes out at night on the high tide and searching for turtles with torches, then spearing them when they came to handling data gcse, the light (Macgregor 1932). Today people dive for turtles using goggles or a diving mask and small spear made from a quarter-inch steel rod propelled by a flexible rubber tube (similar to surgical rubber), with a copper wire loop attached on one end and a tire-tube rubber loop, placed over the thumb, at the other.
The spear is drawn like a bow and arrow (Bennett, personal communication). Fish drives involve numerous households and, at times, entire districts or more. A large net is placed at a strategic location in a reef passage just before low tide, and fish are driven into gatorade essay, it by lines of people beating the water. Canoes are used on such occasions as receptacles for the fish that are caught rather than as vehicles (see Feinberg, this volume, for similar uses of canoes on Nukumanu). Those picking the fish out citation maker, of the net crush the skull between their teeth to dispatch them quickly and prevent them from gatorade, flipping out of the canoes in which they are stored. Sometimes individuals, most often women, eat fish raw during such an handling data gcse coursework event. Gardiner reported on essay one drive involving over two hundred people in which they caught 648 large fish of different kinds weighing over 1.5 tons (Gardiner 1898:427).
Communal drives are still a common fishing method, particularly off the village of Losa. Fish are driven out of the economics for extended reef passage and, blinded by the setting sun, are caught in a net. This method is gatorade, called furamasa 'to fish late in the afternoon' (Churchward 1940a:208), or more generically, hagoat vao 'net fishing'. The term jau 'to beat' (which in this instance refers to beating the water when driving fish to where they can be caught)  is commonly used for fish drives in which nets are not used. No lexical distinction is essay on romance, made between a communal drive involving an entire village or simply a few family members (Bennett, personal communication). In the past, canoes were also used to catch flying fish using a special net [ seu ] about twelve feet long by six feet wide, fixed at the end of two bamboo poles.
A number of canoes would paddle along the reef at high tide in two lines, with a man on watch at the head of each. When the fish were sighted,, usually near the shore, everyone jumped into the water. While some of the gatorade men surrounded the fish with a net, others got ready to catch them when they jumped over it (Gardiner 1898:428). From his account it seems that Gardiner was referring to mullet ( 'anasi ) rather than true flying fish ( säsäve ), since the former feed on economics essay the reef while the latter inhabit the deep sea outside the reef. Mullet often jump out of the water, but do not have the anatomy to glide through the air.  The tautei from Noa'tau district provided MacGregor with detailed information concerning seu expeditions: The Seu is a fishing party of eleven canoes which are accompanied usually by a chief, for gatorade, whom the fishing is done. Essay On Romance Genre!  The fleet of canoes go out in two lines of gatorade five in file, and essay on romance the eleventh canoe travels between the two lines opposite the last two in the files.
There is a tautae [ tautei ] standing in the bow of the first canoe in each file. He wears an eyeshade (isau) [ isao ] made of coconut leaves, and a titi or vehnau which is gatorade essay, a grass skirt made of hau. When the fish have been sighted, the files separate to a greater distance to economics topics for extended, surround the school. On the command rua vao (let the nets go), each man jumps from his canoe with his net, and gatorade essay walks through the water to join his net with the man next to topics for extended essay, him. A complete net is thus formed on each side of the school, and these are joined together, at one end with the net of the gatorade center or eleventh canoe and at the other between the two canoes of the tautae.
There are more than two men in a canoe. If there are flying fish in the school, hand nets are brought out by some of the crew to catch them. These nets are vauseu [ vao seu ]. The long nets are vau hapa [vao hapa ]. Each movement is carried out only at the tautae's orders. The seu is carried out inside the reef in shallow water so that the fish, when completely enclosed with the nets, are taken out by hand into the canoe (Macgregor 1932). MacGregor was told by essay jefferson vs alexander hamilton, one consultant that a seu might last two to three days. A number of taboos were associated with seu . For example, on the night before an expedition, the fishermen were supposed to sleep alone; if any one of them had sex, fish would jump over essay, the net he was holding. No one could mention the names of the men who went fishing. The houses of the fishermen were shut during a seu and economics for extended no one was allowed to enter them while it was in progress. Gatorade Essay! Making noise was taboo, and it was forbidden to make cooking fires. The tautei had to wear the my family vehnau titi and the isao during all operations.
If any of these taboos were violated, it would bring bad luck. It was a bad omen if a man fell out of his canoe; if anyone did so, he had to give a feast for the entire party (Macgregor 1932). If the net used in a fishing expedition is new ( hoiag vao ), the first fish caught in it is put into a special basket ( la ) and taken to the tautei 's house, accompanied by a chief. Gatorade Essay! The doors of the house, kept closed until then, are opened and an announcement of the catch ( ma hei'akia ) is chanted (Elisapeti Inia, personal communication). MacGregor mentions two locations in which hook and line fishing were used for mla essay maker, catching snapper in deep water by gatorade essay, submerged reefs: off the With at a Age islets of Haua and off the village of Losa. He also reported that sharks were caught with hook and essay line, then clubbed when brought to the side of the canoe. His consultants told him that hooks were made from fish vertebrae, turtle shell, and hardwood. The favored hardwood, he was told, was found at the bottom of the sea outside the reef. My Family My Identity! (According to John Bennett, the substance referred to gatorade essay, is black coral, commonly found off the island of Uea, which has no fringing reef.) The men dived for it and brought up branches with long hooked twigs, which made excellent hooks. Citation Maker! Fishing line was made from the bark of paper mulberry or breadfruit trees, or from gatorade essay, sennit cord. The practice of closing up a house when a man goes deep-sea fishing is mla essay, still common today. People are encouraged not to anticipate a fisherman's catch as this can only bring bad luck.
When one first takes out a new boat to fish, he is expected to acknowledge a good catch by providing fish to gatorade essay, the chief and minister. Not observing this custom, Rotumans claim, will result in poor catches (Bennett, personal communication). Shipping Out: Rotuman Sailors on economics essay European Vessels. It is gatorade, clear from the reports of nearly all early commentators that Rotuman men were eager to leave Rotuma aboard European vessels and took every opportunity to maker, do so (e.g., see Bennett 1831:480). Gatorade! Writers also praised the qualities that made Rotumans desirable sailors. The remarks of Joseph Osborn, aboard the whaling ship Emerald when it stopped at Rotuma in 1835, are typical: They love to visit foreign countries great numbers of them ship on board the English whaleships.
On board a ship they are as good or better than any of the data South Sea natives: diligent, civil quiet, 3 very necessary qualities. They soon learn to talk English there is but few of them but what can talk a few words (Osborn 1834-1835). John Eagleston, Captain of the Emerald , echoed Osborn's sentiments. Gatorade! They make good ship men, he wrote, and for a trading vessel are preferable to any of the other natives which I am acquainted with, they being more true faithful more to be depended on (Eagleston 1832). He noted that he had had a number of Rotumans aboard as crewmen in the past, as well as other islanders, but found Rotumans to be the my identity best. Some forty years later Litton Forbes wrote: The men of Rotumah make good sailors, and after a few years' service in sea-going vessels are worth the same wages as white men. Scarcely a man on the island but has been more or less of a traveller.
It is no rare thing to find men who have visited Harve, or New York, or Calcutta, men who can discuss the relative merits of a sailors' home in London or Liverpool, and gatorade essay dilate on the advantages of steam over sailing vessels. Thus the average native of Rotumah is economics topics for extended, more than usually capable and intelligent (Forbes 1875:226). Commenting in 1867 on the extent of emigration, Rev. William Fletcher, the first European Methodist missionary stationed on Rotuma, wrote that upwards of seven hundred young men were known to have left the island in recent memory (Fletcher 1870). Anxiety over gatorade, the unimpeded emigration of young men was one of the first issues raised by the chiefs of Rotuma in their negotiations with British authorities prior to cession. Thus Arthur Gordon reported in 1879 that the chiefs desired regulations to check wholesale emigration. He suggested two regulations, one prohibiting boys under sixteen and married men from leaving, the other requiring unmarried men to have their chief's consent. The regulations were passed unanimously (Outward Letters, dispatch from With at a Young Age, A. Gordon to gatorade, Colonial Secretary, 4 December, 1879 ). The first census taken on Rotuma, in 1881 shortly after cession, yielded a population count of jefferson 2491. In the fifteen- to gatorade, forty-year age group, the gender balance was 440 males to 638 females.
The Resident Commissioner at the time, Charles Mitchell, attributed the surplus of females to the fact that so many young men had left the island (Outward Letters, dispatch from maker, C. Mitchell to essay, Colonial Secretary, 1 October, 1881).  W. L. Allardyce, who was on Rotuma about data gcse coursework, this time, commented on the shift in traveling destinations resulting from the demise of the whaling industry as well as the gatorade social price homestayers had to pay: Nearly all the coursework men on gatorade the island have at one time or another been to essay on thomas vs alexander, sea, and essay while in the old whaling days Honolulu and Behring Straits formed the goal of their ideas, the sailors of the present day must needs visit New Zealand, Australia, China, and India, while others still more ambitious are not satisfied till they have rounded the Horn and passed the white cliffs of Dover. The few who have never been to sea at all have often to endure a considerable amount of banter at the expense of their inexperience (Allardyce 1885-1886:133).  Allardyce also noted that the majority of Rotuman men abroad were engaged in the Torres Straits pearl-diving industry, which was flourishing at the time. Writing in 1884, William Gordon reported that over essay on romance, one hundred Rotuman men were employed in the industry, mostly in the management of boats. The boatmen earned two to three pounds a month. Essay! Divers earned much more, up to forty pounds a month according to Gordon, but tended to squander it during binges in the city ( Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November, 1884). The early commissioners feared the Rotuman population was rapidly declining and in danger of extinction. Topics Essay! They saw emigration as a significant part of the problem.
Fortunately, however, Rotuma avoided the scourges of venereal disease,  a fact remarked upon by Commissioner Gordon with surprise, given the comings and goings of so many young men who had been sailors (Outward Letters, dispatch from Wm. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 24 November 1884). Attempts to dampen emigration were aided by essay, the British decision to govern Rotuma as part of the on thomas colony of Fiji and to close Rotuma as a port of gatorade essay entry. This significantly reduced the number of vessels calling at Rotuma and meant that men had to on romance genre, go to Fiji to sign aboard as seamen. The issue of controlling emigration remained a matter of essay concern to subsequent Resident Commissioners. Following an inquiry into the matter, A. R. Data Gcse Coursework! Mackay reported that fewer than thirty adult males on the island [out of some four to five hundred] had not been abroad. He reiterated what others had said before, that it is a cutting reproach to cast at a man that he has not been away from the essay island; hence, partly, the anxiety of the young men to accomplish their long cherished dream (Outward Letters, dispatch from A.R. Mackay to Colonial Secretary, 10 January, 1887). The concern for controlling emigration eventually led to the passage of Rotuma Regulation Number 3 in 1939, stating that No native may leave Rotuma without the permission of the Problems With Marrying at a Young Age District Officer (who replaced the essay Resident Commissioner as administrative officer in data coursework charge of Rotuma following a colonial governmental reorganization). It further specified that No male adult responsible for gatorade, the maintenance of his wife, children, or relatives may leave Rotuma without making adequate provision for the maintenance of my family said wife, children, or relatives to the satisfaction of the District Officer (Rotuma Regulations 1939:457). 
Nevertheless, a substantial number of Rotumans emigrated to Fiji, establishing an enclave there. Essay! The outbreak of World War II accelerated Rotuman emigration to Fiji, and by 1946 approximately 17 percent of all Rotumans were residing there. Once in Fiji, Rotuman men were free to sign on ships without consulting anyone. The chiefs protested and demanded the right to choose who could go, but the governor of Fiji ruled that the liberty of the individual must be respected and it is not for the Rotuman Chiefs to decide who shall and who shall not sign on economics ships (Fiji Archives, Document F 24/44). Although precise figures are not available, sailing remains a favored occupation among Rotumans. In a survey of 414 households (85 percent) on Rotuma during 1989,  I identified sixty-nine men engaged in sailing at the time. This accounted for 20.7 percentof all men abroad on whom I have occupational data. Five of them were ship captains, two were pilots.
Rotuman crews were entrenched on certain ships, like the cable ships Retriever and Pacific Guardian . All the information at my disposal suggests that Rotumans are desired as crewmen as much today as they were in earlier times.  The reasons given are similar: that Rotumans are exceptionally conscientious, learn fast, and are capable of gatorade taking responsibility.  I have elsewhere related these qualities, widely recognized by employers of Rotuman personnel, to socialization patterns and the social organization of the Rotuman community (Howard 1966, 1970). Seamanship on Rotuma Today. With a few notable exceptions, Rotumans now residing on the island do not venture beyond the maker reef and have not developed seafaring skills. Essay! Almost all fishing is done on the reef, and canoes are used more as receptacles than as vehicles. The only for extended type of canoe that has survived is the small outrigger, formerly called täväne , but currently known only by the generic term for canoe, vaka . They are occasionally used as transportation to the nearer offshore islets. Both men and women fish on essay the reef, and women are as likely to take canoes for this purpose as men.
It is common to find husbands and wives exploiting the handling reef together. The most usual techniques employed do not require canoes, however. Gatorade Essay! They involve one or two individuals with minimal gear: goggles, perhaps a spear, and occasionally small gill nets. Night fishing ( sulu ) is handling data, also practiced, although the technique has changed during the past decade. Previously, benzine lanterns were used, and one would walk on the reef at low tide or spearfish from essay, a canoe. Today it is more common for young men to dive at night using an underwater flashlight. In general, there has been a dramatic decline in the use of canoes in the past few years.
Bennett reports that men with whom he previously fished in With at a Young the deep sea no longer go out, and young men show little interest (Bennett, personal communication). As the cash flow to Rotuma has increased, largely as a result of gatorade remittances (Rensel 1994), the islanders have exploited marine resources less and less, so that consumption of tinned fish now exceeds that of fresh fish. Handling Gcse! A few years ago a Fisheries report documented an average annual per capita consumption of 30 tins of mackerel, a total wet weight equivalent of essay more than 40 tons of fish. The authors comment on the unimportance of fishing in daily life, in on thomas vs alexander stark contrast to the strong fishing traditions of other Polynesian peoples (Fisheries Division n.d.:5).  The 1989 household survey (see note 18) included an inventory of selected items, including canoes and boats. Seventy-six households (18.4 percent) reported owning a canoe, and essay seven households (1.6 percent) reported owning a punt or launch with an outboard motor. Vs Alexander Hamilton! All canoes were owned by individual households, and nearly all had been built by a member of the household.  One man, with the title Sautiak, owned a small fishing boat with an inboard engine. Sautiak identified five fishing areas that he exploits. Three were off the west end of the island, including Whale Bank Reef; one was to the east, another to the southeast of Noa'tau. The furthest destination, Captain Read Reef is some forty-eight kilometers to gatorade essay, the south-southeast of Rotuma.  It is approximately sixteen kilometers long and rises to topics, within twelve fathoms of the surface.
According to gatorade, a report from the Fiji Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, this location is likely to be very productive for both pelagic and bottom fish, and can be fished with a reasonable margin of safety during favourable weather in the SE trades, when prevailing winds would favour sail-assisted return of a disabled vessel to Rotuma (Fisheries Division n.d.:18). Sautiak takes twenty liters of fuel with him on at a Young each trip, which he says is more than enough. He locates sites with a compass and uses a depth sounder to determine optimal fishing grounds. When fishing close to Rotuma, he uses alignments of landmarks on gatorade essay the island and topics essay watches for sea birds feeding at gatorade essay the reef breaks. He uses metal hooks of Japanese manufacture on nylon line, and does both deep-water drops and trolling.
He goes out once a week or so when his boat is in good repair. Most of his expeditions are extremely fruitful, and my family my identity he distributes his catch to friends and family, although he usually sells a portion. Since demand far exceeds the supply, selling fresh fish is very easy. He has considered fishing on a commercial basis, but the main problem is storage. He said that unless he had cold storage facilities on gatorade board he could not stay out long enough to make it pay. A group from the district of Malhaha formed a cooperative a few years ago in which fishing was to be a major activity. They bought two boats and data a large, walk-in freezer to store their catch. But they had difficulty with the freezer and some of the gatorade essay fish spoiled, leading a health inspector to condemn their entire frozen stock on several occasions.
As a result, they endured financial losses and their backers, a group of Rotumans in Problems at a Fiji, withdrew financial support. After a while the freezer broke down completely. One of the boats was repossessed by the bank and sold to a group from Hapmak; the other developed a leak and was still in drydock on essay our last visit to economics topics for extended essay, the island. The Hapmak group uses the boat for commercial fishing on essay a sporadic basis, going out when there is a special need for fish and mla essay when sailing conditions are optimal. Another group, from Itu'muta, bought John Bennett's catamaran with the stated intention of starting a fishing enterprise, but they go out only occasionally, and the venture has foundered. Despite a consistent demand for fish and recognition of essay commercial possibilities, little has been done to capitalize on the potential. With Young! A lack of storage facilities and sufficient financing to keep operations going through lean periods have clearly been factors. Gatorade Essay! But the fact that many Rotumans in Fiji are engaged in commercial deep-sea fishing suggests an aversion to jefferson vs alexander hamilton, the rigors of the deep is not at issue.  While it is probably true that economic payoffs on Rotuma are insufficient to essay, offset investment costs in time and money,  a more important factor may be a failure in leadership. This is the opinion of Bennett, who is familiar with both the Malhaha and Itu'muta ventures. The leaders in each case were assertive individuals viewed as serving their own self-interests rather than the group at large.
In the Itu'muta case, the young men expressed dissatisfaction with spending all day fishing only to find the catch inequitably distributed among participants (J. Topics For Extended Essay! Bennett, personal communication). Problems of leadership are endemic on Rotuma, especially when it comes to the management of financial resources. It may well be, therefore, that the kind of leadership required to sustain a fishing enterprise is absent on Rotuma, and that Rotumans engage in seabound ventures so much more readily abroad (and aboard European vessels), because they they find the leadership much more palatable. The importance of sailing as a focus of cultural experience for gatorade, Rotumans is evident in many ways. It is a source of for extended essay solidarity between men who have sailed together and the subject of reminiscences when men congregate. Sailing experience also provides metaphoric content for a number of sayings and for the content of songs and recitations. In some instances it constitutes the gatorade essay core of personal identity, as in my family the case of a woman who changed her name to Al 'e sasi 'Died at sea' after her son was lost while serving aboard a ship.
Travel abroad, in general, is metaphorically a sailing experience, and at its core remains a canoe journey. Thus, the notion that the traveler arrives with salt on his body is gatorade essay, central to the Rotuman ritual of mamasa , welcoming a returnee or first-time visitor to the island. The term mamasa means 'to be dry' or 'to become dry', and is used in reference to a ceremony performed when people return from a sea voyage or, in earlier times, from a dangerous deep-sea fishing expedition (Churchward 1940a:258). Presumably when people arrived by canoe, or by steamer prior to the building of a wharf at Oinafa in the 1970s, they landed wet and had to be dried and data provided with clothes; hence the reference to drying out. The mamasa is one of several life crisis events that involve the central symbols of Rotuman ceremonial performances: sacrificial pigs, kava, sweet-smelling oil, garlands, and fine white pandanus mats ( apei ). The recipient of a mamasa ceremony ( forau ) is seated in the place of honor upon a pile of mats ( päega ) topped with an apei , which symbolizes his or her elevation to a god-like status for the duration of the event. Apei are the prime form of traditional wealth on Rotuma, and are necessary elements in any formal ceremony. Essay! Each apei is consecrated by a koua 'sacrificial slaughter and essay on thomas vs alexander hamilton cooking of a pig in gatorade essay an earth oven'; it symbolizes life and essay on romance genre blessings from the gods. While seated on gatorade the päega the forau is presented with a tefui 'garland', tied around his or her neck by a woman designated to play the welcoming role. The woman then performs the mamia , which in ordinary circumstances means 'to wash a person or fishing net in fresh water after having been in economics topics for extended essay the sea' (Churchward 1940a:259), but in this instance is essay, symbolized by anointing the honoree with sweet-smelling oil, which must be pure Rotuman oil.
This highly symbolic act signifies cleansing the data body of salt from the sea (Nilsen 1977:80). Essay! In earlier times, the my family my identity essay woman would take off the forau 's shirt and put a new one on him or her, then present him or her with a new lavalava (Marseu 1986:5).  This act is followed by a kava ceremony and gatorade essay formal presentation of food. The forau is given the head of the largest pig (reserved for citation maker, the person of highest status during feasts), which is placed in front of him or her on a ceremonial table ( 'umefe ). Gatorade Essay! He or she is also served kava before anyone else present, including chiefs. Mla Essay Citation! If the gatorade ceremony is an elaborate one, for a person of high status or someone whose achievements abroad brought honor to my family essay, the community, dances and songs composed for the occasion may be performed, glorifying the gatorade essay person's adventures or accomplishments. The mamasa ceremony has at least two clear functions. One is to reintegrate sojourners back into Rotuman life by mla essay maker, communicating their importance to the community and elevating their status, if only for gatorade, the duration of the event. Attention is called to their absence and return, to their bravery in economics topics for extended essay leaving the island, and to their accomplishments.
They are made to feel special. The ceremony's other function is to celebrate the essay triumph of handling coursework life over death. Like all Rotuman ceremonies, the essay symbolism of the mamasa emphasizes the regeneration of life forces: the sacrificial pig is a gift to the gods, who are supposed to respond by giving life to the land and its people; kava symbolizes bodily fluids that give life; and fragrant oils and flowers (in the form of a garland) suggest the With sweet smells of life as opposed to the stench of death. Essay!  Journeying beyond the reef for long periods was regarded as dangerous in the past; the mamasa was a way to offer thanks for a safe return. Another possible function, given the ambivalence Rotumans have toward the sea and things foreign, is symbolic purification. By washing away salt water residues with fresh water, they perhaps ritually cleanse sojourners of contamination not only by essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton, the sea, but by foreign influences of gatorade all kinds.
Rotuman sayings referring to sailing experiences can be lumped into four categories: (1) those calling attention to on thomas jefferson vs alexander, the special status of travellers; (2) those used metaphorically to call attention to hardships and fatigue; (3) those referring to essay, chaos; and (4) those calling attention to undesirable behavior. For Extended Essay! The following examples are illustrative:  1. The special status of travellers. 'Ou la mat la'mou 'Your legs (or feet) are still wet'. Said to newcomers, suggesting that they have not yet fully integrated into community life. It can be used as a put-down to someone who expresses opinions prematurely after coming to the island. 2. Hardship and fatigue. Na ta lu 'Give a rope'. Said of people who work slowly, as if fatigued.
It refers to seafarers who, wearied by a long journey, need to be hauled up to the beach with a rope, like a punt. 3. Chaos. Essay! 'Itake vak lo 'Like a capsized canoe'. Said when there is a sudden crisis and everyone starts talking at once, but no one knows what to do, and nothing gets done. It also applies where one can not hear because of the noise. 4. Undesirable Behavior. Vak ta lelei ka sam ta raksa'a 'the canoe is good but the outrigger is bad'. Metaphorically, the man is good, but his wife is not. This is handling data gcse, generally used in gatorade essay reference to a chief and his wife, since the term vaka is a common metaphor for a chief. Songs are composed in several formats referring to travel abroad, including chants that accompany action dances and compositions in a modern pan-Pacific format accompanied by guitar, ukelele and other instruments. An example of such a song is presented by Mosese Kaurasi (1977:145-146): Rotuman Version Tefui hata vasa 'e tier Ma noa la se maoen 'ae 'e fue Api ma roa 'ae 'e matit fak use Tari te Rotuma noh fak rotue English Translation The garlands of pandanus fruit and mla essay maker gardenia Be careful not to get lost out there You've lingered long in the cold of the essay rain Your relatives are awaiting you in Rotuma Recitations.
Ritual presentations of kava occupy a central place in handling data gcse nearly all Rotuman ceremonies. A key part of the ritual is the recitation of a fakpeje , a text generally associated with the legendary coming of kava to Rotuma. Recitations are given by male elders ( mafua ), usually in a language so esoteric that most people cannot follow their meaning. Rotumans often describe fakpeje as composed of archaic words whose meanings have been lost. I suspect, however, that a lack of intelligibility has always been central to such recitations, perhaps to accentuate the gatorade essay foreign origin of kava. The prevailing myth concerning kava's origin has it coming from jefferson hamilton, Tonga, which in its generic sense is a place over or under the gatorade essay sea inhabited by potent beings or spirits. That Rotumans associate experiences overseas and aboard ship with the foreignness (and potency) attributed to kava can be seen in a fakpeje recorded by Hocart on Rotuma in 1913.
In this instance, intelligibility seems to be obscured by the seemingly random juxtaposition of English phrases, with Rotuman words interspersed: A below, way about riepouj how many nu le for here ten mile and a quarter two far off all pull up to which you can't go up there its too heavy good kuretemene hard Adele lee o four yard forty gunsale forty mainsail pull off the data gcse guff topsail French ship jib stay sail jib fore poren where your head saw pau es you takes up. Collectively, Rotuman attitudes toward the sea are ambivalent. It has been a source of wondrous adventures for some, of seasickness for essay, many, and of grief over Problems at a Young, losing kinsmen for others. For all Rotumans, boats represent connections to the outside world. For those on the island, boats are bridges to relatives abroad, transporters of vital supplies, and the means by which money is earned through the shipping of essay copra. Days when boats arrive and leave are major occasions. That the sea beyond the reef is dangerous comes home repeatedly. A number of Rotumans have been lost in recent years during seafaring adventures. Some have gone fishing and never returned.
News of crewmembers aboard vessels that have sunk arrives periodically. Essay Jefferson Vs Alexander Hamilton! During my 1989 visit, a freighter sank in a storm off Nova Scotia; it had five Rotuman crew members aboard who went down with the ship. Shortly before this tragedy, a Rotuman helicopter pilot was killed in a crash on the U.S. Gatorade! mainland,  lending even more emphasis to the dangers of sailing, since sea and sky are associated in Rotuman cultural idiom (airplanes are called 'ahai fere 'flying ships'). Such tragedies have fed the mystique with which the sea is endowed by most Rotumans. They conceive of the sea, and what happens in handling gcse coursework and on it, as dangerous and unpredictable on gatorade the one hand, enriching and vitalizing on the other.
Their attitudes have been shaped, in part, by the unpredictability of shipping over the years. Problems With Marrying At A! Vessels sometimes do not arrive for months at a time, resulting in empty stores and varying degrees of hardship. At other times several ships may arrive within days of each other. Despite numerous efforts on gatorade essay the part of well-placed officials, shipping to Rotuma has remained erratic since the on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton initial arrival of Europen vessels. It has been the source of essay much black humor on the island. For example, when I heard on Fiji Radio that a boat was scheduled to sail for my family my identity, Rotuma in a week and mentioned it to gatorade, my Rotuman friend, he laughed and told me always to multiply the time interval by two or three. On several occasions Rotumans have attempted to gain control of shipping by purchasing and operating their own vessel.
As early as 1901 they had a schooner built to With at a Young Age, ship copra and take passengers between Rotuma and Sydney via Suva. The fifty-ton vessel cost over 2,000 pounds and operated for eighteen months before sinking on a reef at essay Rotuma (Eason 1951:89-90). Most recently, in 1992, a Rotuman group purchased an interisland vessel, the jefferson vs alexander Wairua , at a cost of Fiji $250,000. Essay! It went aground on a reef at Kadavu in August 1993 and was judged unsalvageable. The evidence reviewed in this essay raises questions about Rotuma's maritime tradition at the time of European contact.
Although there is no doubt that Rotumans occasionally voyaged to essay hamilton, islands in their general vicinity, and perhaps beyond, their canoes were described by European observers as of poor quality, and their navigational knowledge was characterized as limited. Essay! Taken at face value, these observations suggest Rotuma lacked the highly developed maritime traditions that characterized some of its mid-Pacific neighbors. If so, this may have resulted from risks being greater than potential benefits, given Rotuma's isolation and handling gcse coursework productivity. Rotuma is an exceptionally fertile island, not often subjected to the devastating droughts and hurricanes that forced periodic migrations in other parts of the Pacific. There may have been little motivation to develop long-distance sailing skills. A second possibility is that Rotumans may have possessed a sophisticated sailing culture that deteriorated prior to European contact. The only hope of verifying such a prior tradition would be through archaeological investigations yet to be done. A third possibility is that Rotuman seafaring skills were in gatorade fact highly developed, but that opportunities to sail aboard European vessels led to an extraordinarily rapid erosion of traditional maritime technology and economics topics for extended knowledge. Perhaps, it might be argued, the gatorade essay most skillful sailors took advantage of the opportunities European ships offered, and they distinguished themselves because they already had the personal characteristics that made them good sailors, regardless of the craft involved. That sailing, and canoes in handling gcse coursework particular, have remained central symbols in Rotuman culture lends weight to such an gatorade argument. Regardless of which scenario one favors, it seems clear that the character traits developed on this remote island were consistent with those required for seafaring, especially where responsibility to one's shipmates was central.
The contributions of sailors to Rotuman society have been substantial. Until outmigration resulted in overseas enclaves, following World War II, they were the main source of acculturative influences. Today travelers characteristically send remittances to their families and, when returning, bring expensive goods such as radios, refrigerators and motorbikes. For these reasons, among others, sailing continues to be a high status occupation for Rotumans.  For detailed information concerning the mla essay citation maker geology of Rotuma, see Woodhall 1987. [back to text]  W.E. Gatorade Essay! Russell, who served as resident commissioner on Rotuma in the 1920s, published an account taken from the notes of F. Gibson, a part-Rotuman man, that reported canoe voyages allegedly made by Rotumans to Tikopia, Malekula, Santo, Nanumea (Ellice Islands), Tonga, and Fiji (Russell 1942:253). A man by essay, the name of Pani and two other unnamed men from Malhaha and Losa, respectively, were said by Gibson's informants to be the last canoe voyagers to go abroad and return.
I regard this report with considerable skepticism, however, since it was given over one hundred years from the time interisland canoe voyages had ceased. [back to text]  Allen served as a Methodist missionary on Rotuma for several years during the 1880s. [back to text]  Hocart, during his visit to Rotuma in 1913, elicited the names of several constellations, some of which were associated with sailing directions, but it is essay, unclear whether this information represented indigenous knowledge (Hocart 1913:4944-4946) MacGregor's notes also contain a number of entries concerning astronomy, but only one entry refers to the navigational use of stars. He records the on romance name Takirua as two stars between which the course is laid from Wallis to gatorade, Rotuma (Macgregor 1932). [back to text]  The spelling of Rotuman words was standardized following Churchward's publication of Problems With Marrying his Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary in gatorade essay 1940. I use Churchward's orthography in my own writing and following other authors' usage I include Churchward's spelling in brackets if it is essay on thomas hamilton, different. For an essay explanation of the essay vs alexander hamilton orthography see Churchward 1940a:13. [back to text]  MacGregor also records in his notes from this consultant, a man named Niua: These canoes carried from 60-100 people and traveled to Fiji, Futuna and Sufaia? [sic] in the Ellice. Ngofe was a famous captain of the last Oinafa ahoi [ 'ahai ]. Planks still in gatorade Oinafa (Macgregor 1932). Topics Essay! Again, given the time lapse from the period in which such voyages might have been made, one must be cautious interpreting this report as factual knowledge. [back to gatorade essay, text]  Ororo refers to a contrivance made of economics topics essay large number of half coconut-shells threaded on a wooden hoop, and drawn up and essay down in the water, thereby making a noise which attracts sharks to mla essay maker, the proximity of the baited hooks that are out for them (Churchward 1940:275). It is also used in gatorade reference to fishing for essay genre, sharks with the help of ororo . [back to text]  MacGregor's consultant mentioned this to him when asked why there were only two strips on one border of his canoe. Gatorade! The man said that the wood was not long enough to reach from bow piece to stern piece. [back to text]  Identification of essay vs alexander penau , togoi , 'ura and ratu'a trees are from gatorade essay, Whistler (1989). He did not identify sa'a , which Churchward describes as a tree growing to large size, with very large leaves and long straight branches. The bark, at first, is greyish-green and very smooth. Bears bunches of small whitish flowers.
Timber, white, much used in house-building and Problems Marrying Young canoe-making (Churchward 1940a:307). [back to text]  Hocart, in a brief article published in 1914, reported that as the result of gatorade essay a curse, turtle nets were no longer being made in at least in one district (Hocart 1914). [back to text]  According to Churchward the phrase jao 'atua 'beating ghosts' is sometimes used (1940a:231). [back to text]  I am indebted to John Bennett for pointing this out to me. [back to economics topics essay, text]  Another consultant told MacGregor that the last seu involved twenty-one taf'aga canoes. [back to text]  Two years earlier, Arthur Gordon inquired into labor recruiting on Rotuma and gatorade obtained figures for five districts (Itu'ti'u, Itu'muta, Juju, Pepjei and Malhaha). They showed 177 men known to be away, approximately one-third of them married (Outward Letters,dispatch from A. Gordon to Colonial Secretary, 4 December 1879, ). [back to text] A significant portion of the men who were away had been recruited as laborers to work in the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, and Problems With had difficulty returning. In a series of dispatches during 1883, William Gordon, the resident commissioner, requested assistance in essay having the handling data gcse coursework 50-60 men in the Hawaiian Islands, and an unspecified number from Samoa, repatriated. He commented that the men in Samoa had been paid in goods instead of gatorade essay money and were thus unable to pay for passage home.  Gardiner also commented on the disgrace endured by Rotuman men who had not been to foreign lands (Gardiner 1898:407). He speculated (p. 497) that, although it was not uncommon for a hundred or more young men to leave the island in a year, not more than one-third ever returned. [back to text]  The population may have been protected as a result of the prevalence of virulent yaws, which has a complementary distribution with syphilis (see Howard 1979). [back to text]  The practice of informing chiefs when departing the island is still carried out to some extent, although it has noticeably declined over the past fifteen years. Chiefs enforce the my family regulation to varying degrees. Essay! Protocol calls for mla essay maker, an individual to inform his village chief ( fa 'es ho'aga ), who in turn informs the district chief, who then informs the district officer (J.
Bennett, personal communication). This regulation, however, conflicts with the right to freedom of movement within Fiji guaranteed by the initial and post-coup constitutions. Gatorade! A recent case, in data gcse coursework which the district officer attempted to confine a woman to the island on the grounds that her children might not be properly cared for, highlighted this contradiction and resulted in a threatened lawsuit. [back to text]  The survey was conducted by school teachers hired as research assistants, supervised by myself and my wife, Jan Rensel, who was pursuing doctoral research on the island at the time. The survey included all of Oinafa, Malhaha, Itu'muta and Itu'ti'u districts, and most of Juju and Noa'tau. Pepjei was omitted as a result of interviewer difficulties. [back to gatorade, text]  In late 1990 a recruitment program was launched in Fiji for up to sixty Rotumans to become the core crew for a newly commissioned cable ship having English officers (J. Bennett, personal communication). [back to text]  These are the same reasons given by supervisors at the Vatukoula gold mines for favoring Rotuman workers (see Howard 1966:266). [back to text]  The Fisheries Division report concludes that the sea around Rotuma offers considerable opportunity for essay, commerically viable fishing enterprises, but they identify three major problems: (1) the lack of suitable vessels to exploit the productive areas; (2) inadequate facilities for fishing vessels, including lack of an all-weather anchorage; absence of maintenance facilities; occasional fuel shortages; and gatorade essay the lack of ice, gear, storage, and marketing facilities for fisherman; and economics for extended essay (3) the isolation of the island (Fisheries Division n.d.:18-20). Gatorade Essay! [back to text]  Household size averaged 5.8 persons in 1989. For a discussion of genre household types on Rotuma, and how they have changed over the past three decades, see Howard 1991. [back to gatorade essay, text]  The reef is named after its discoverer, Captain Read, aboard the hydrographic vessel M.V. Tangaroa, which carried out a survey for citation maker, phosphate deposits in the region in 1976. [back to text]  According to essay, information provided by With Young Age, Vilsoni Hereniko, obtained from his sister Vamarasi, his brother Mua, and Isireli Motofaga, a boat owner in Lautoka, at least five Rotumans in Fiji own fishing vessels and are engaged in commercial fishing.
Their boats were purchased with the help of bank loans. Two of the boat owners captain their own vessels and sail with a hired crew ranging from two to four, depending on availability. The other owners remain on land while a hired crew goes out to sea. One of the boats is quite large, and the crew sometimes remains at sea for up to a month. The other boats are smaller and gatorade essay usually stay out for about two weeks at a time, depending on weather. The large boat's catch can bring in between F$3,000-5,000 per trip, while the smaller ones usually bring in catches worth between F$2,000-3,000 per trip.
The larger vessel may wait several weeks before expeditions, while the smaller ones go out more frequently, sometimes waiting only a few days before going out to Problems Marrying at a Young, sea again. [back to gatorade, text]  According to Hereniko's brother, Mua, the absence of reefs beyond the fringing reef around Rotuma limits access to my family, such commercially profitable fish as tuna or walu, which eat smaller fish that feed off reefs. Mua believes this at least partly accounts for the absence of commercial fishing on essay Rotuma. Fiji, in vs alexander contrast, has extensive offshore reefs, offering better opportunities for commercial fishing. [back to text]  This practice is occasionally followed today but is gatorade, not now regarded as essential to essay, the ceremony. Gatorade! [back to text]  These symbolic associations are my inferences and were not explicitly provided by informants. They are based primarily on my analyses of symbolism contained in Rotuman myths (Howard 1985, 1986). With Marrying Young Age! [back to text]  The sayings included here have been obtained from an unpublished collection by Elisapeti Inia. Additional information was obtained from Aubrey Parke's published collection of Rotuman Idioms (Parke 1971). [back to text]  The young man was flying mercy missions for a company located in Spokane, Washington. [back to essay, text] 1885-6 Rotooma and the Rotoomans. Essay! Proceedings . 1st sets:130-44. 1895 Rotuma. Report of essay Australasian Association for Advancement of Science, pp. 556-79. 1938 Isle of Rotuma: curious place in on romance Central Polynesian history.
Pacific Islands Monthly . December 15, 1938. Essay! Sydney, Australia. 1831 A recent visit to several of the Polynesian Islands. United Service Journal 33:198-202, 473-482. Cheever, George N. 1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald . Pacific Manuscript Bureau, frame 31. Churchward, C. Maxwell. 1939 Tales of a Lonely Island.
Sydney: Australian Medical Publishing Co., Ltd. 1940 Rotuman Grammar and data gcse Dictionary. Sydney: Australasian Medical Publishing Co. 1829 Narrative . . . of a Voyage in the South Seas. London: Hurst Chance. Eagleston, John Henry. 1832 Log of the ship Emerald, Vol. 3. Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass. Eason, William J. E. 1951 A Short History of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji: Government Printing Department.
1961 History and Traditions of Tikopia. Wellington: The Polynesian Society. 1947 Rotuman crews on overseas vessels. Archive F22/44. Fisheries Division, Ministry of gatorade essay Agriculture and Fisheries. n.d. The Fishery Resources of Rotuma. Suva, Fiji.
1870 The Wesleyan Missionary Notices. Essay! No. Essay! 13 Vol. III. Sidney: Australian Wesleyan Methodist Conference. 1875 Two Years in With Marrying Young Age Fiji. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 1898 Natives of Rotuma. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 27:396-435, 457-524. 1913 Field Notes on Rotuma. Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
1914 The disappearance of a useful art in essay Rotuma. Man 14:162-163. 1936 The Canoes of Polynesia, Fiji and Micronesia. Honolulu: Special Publication of the B.P. Bishop Museum, No. 27. 1970 Learning to Be Rotuman. New York: Columbia Teachers College Press. 1985 History, myth and Polynesian chieftainship: the case of Rotuman Kings. In Transformations of Polynesian Culture, edited by A. Hooper and J. Huntsman, pp.39-77, Auckland: Polynesian Society.
1991 Reflections on With Marrying at a change in Rotuma, 1959-1989. In Rotuma: Hanua Pumue: Precious Land. edited by Anselmo Fatiaki et. al, pp. 227-54. Gatorade! Suva, Fiji: Institute for genre, Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1838 Journal of a Voyage to gatorade, the South Seas, in the Japan, Employed in the Sperm Whale Fishery, under the Command of Capt. John May. London: Longman and Co. and Charles Tilt. 1977 Rotuman chants, sports and pastimes.
In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by Chris Plant,pp. 143-52. On Romance Genre! Suva, Fiji: Institute of essay Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1838-9 Voyage Autour du Monde . . . sur . Handling Gcse! . .'La Coquille'. Paris: Pourrat Fréres. 1851 Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-49 . . . by gatorade, a Merchant Long Resident in Tahiti.
London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longman. 1932 Rotuma Field Notes. Bishop Museum Archives. Honolulu, Hawaii. Coursework! SC McGregor. 1980 Canoes of Rotuma. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15:51-55. 1986 The Rotuman mamasa ceremony.
In Pacific Rituals: Living or Dying, edited by Gweneth Deverell and Bruce Deverell, pp. 3-22. Suva, Fiji: Institute of essay Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. 1977 The mamasa ceremony. In Rotuma: Split Island, edited by Chris Plant, pp. 79-87. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. Osborn, Joseph W.
1834-1835 Log of the ship Emerald. Pacific Manuscript Bureau, Reel 223, frame 359. n.d. Rotuma District Office. Suva: Fiji Central Archives. 1971 Rotuman Idioms. Auckland: Te Reo Monographs, Linguistic Society of economics topics essay New Zealand.
1994 For Love or Money: Interhousehold Exchange and the Economy of Rotuma. Essay! PhD Dissertation, Anthropology Department, University of my family my identity essay Hawai'i. 1939 Legislative Council Papers . Suva, Fiji: Government Press. 1942 Rotuma. Journal of the Polynesian Society 51:229-255. 1915 Voyage of H.M.S. 'Pandora'.
London: Francis Edwards. 1989 Ethnobotany of Rotuma. Manuscript. 1799 A Missionary Voyage to essay, the Southern Pacific Ocean. My Identity Essay! London: Chapman. 1875 A Yachting Cruise in the South Seas. London: Henry King.
1987 Geology of gatorade Rotuma. Suva, Fiji: Mineral Resources Department, Ministry of Lands, Energy Mineral Resources.
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Freud vs Jung – Similarities and essay Differences. One repays a teacher badly if one remains only a pupil. Coursework. And why, then, should you not pluck at my laurels? You respect me; but how if one day your respect should tumble? Take care that a falling statue does not strike you dead! You had not yet sought yourselves when you found me.
Thus do all believers — Now I bid you lose me and find yourselves; and only when you have all denied me will I return to gatorade essay, you. (Nietzsche Quoted by vs alexander hamilton Jung to Freud, 1912) To many, Carl Jung and gatorade Sigmund Freud defined the world of psychology. Their theories, although differing, have had the greatest impact on our perception of the human mind, and their contributions to theory and practice have led to the development of successful psychological treatments for the wide spectrum of maker human distress. Yet their paths were not always so different. At the beginning of this colourful history was a friendship, a camaraderie based on intellectual prowess and impassioned desire to gatorade, further the study into the unconscious psyche. To a 31 year-old Jung, Freud embodied a not only an esteemed colleague, but also a father figure with whom he could open his heart and mind. Gcse. Likewise to Freud, Jung was energetic and an exciting new prospect to the psychoanalytical movement. But this power dynamic changed, and along with it their friendship.
In a case of the student becoming the teacher, by the time of his break with Freud in 1913 Jung was internationally known for gatorade his own contribution to topics essay, psychological theory. Gatorade Essay. What was the cause between their intellectual break, and where did their differences lie? In the battle of Freud vs Jung, was their a winner? Sigmund Freud, born Sigismund Freud, was an Austrian neurologist born on handling gcse coursework, the 6th May,1856, in a small town named Freiberg, Moravia (now the Czech Republic). Although raised by a relatively poor Jewish family, Freud planned to study law at gatorade essay the University of Vienna. He later changed his mind and opted for medicine. Upon graduating, Freud began work in economics topics, a psychiatry clinic in gatorade, the Vienna General Hospital . Psychiatry at this time took no interest in the psychological components of mental health, but simply viewed behaviour in handling coursework, light of the anatomical structures of the brain. After spending four months abroad on gatorade, placement in the Salpetriere clinic in Paris, Freud began to harbour an interest in “hysteria”, and topics for extended essay particularly the hypnosis methods of its leading neurologist, Jean Martin Charcot. Upon his return to Vienna, Freud left the General Hospital and set up a private practice specialising in “nervous and brain disorders”. Along with his colleague Joseph Breuer he began exploring the traumatic life histories of clients with hysteria, leading to gatorade essay, the view that talking was a “cathartic” way of mla essay citation releasing “pent up emotion”.
Breuer and Freud together published “Studies on Hysteria” (1895) and gatorade essay began to develop the ideas that led towards psychoanalysis. It was about this time that Freud began his own self-analysis, meticulously analysing his dreams in light of unconscious processes culminating in his next major work “The Interpretation of Dreams” (1901). Problems With At A Age. Freud had by now also developed his therapeutic technique of free association and was no longer practicing hypnosis. From this he went on to explore the influence of unconscious thought processes on various aspects of human behaviour and felt that amongst these forces the most powerful were the sexual desires in essay, childhood which were repressed from the conscious mind. Although the medical establishment as whole disagreed with many of mla essay citation his theories, in 1910 Freud, along with a group of pupils and followers, founded the International Psychoanalytic Association, with Carl Jung as president . In 1923 Freud published “The Ego and the Id”, revising the structural make-up of the mind. By 1938 and the arrival of the Nazis in Austria, Freud left for London with his wife and children. However, throughout this time he was plagued by cancer of the jaw, and gatorade after undergoing 30 operations, died in London on 23rd September 1939.
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and Problems Marrying at a Age the founder of Analytical Psychology. Gatorade Essay. Initially, he was a great admirer of Freud’s work, and after meeting him in essay, Vienna in 1907 the story goes that the gatorade essay, two talked for thirteen hours straight, resulting in an intense five year friendship. Mla Essay Citation. But while Freud had first thought Jung the heir apparent to psychoanalysis, the essay, relationship between the economics topics for extended essay, two began to rapidly deteriorate. Freud, in particular, was unhappy with Jung’s disagreement with some of the key concepts and gatorade essay ideas of Freudian theory. For example, Jung disagreed with Freud’s focus on sexuality as a key motivating behavioural force, as well as believing Freud’s concept of the unconscious as too limited and overly negative. In 1912, Jung published “Psychology of the Unconscious”, outlining the clear theoretical divergence between himself and Freud, as well as forming the basic tenets of Analytical Psychology. Jung believed the human psyche exists in three parts; the ego (the conscious mind), the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious (which included Jung’s ideas concerning Archetypes). Jung likened the gcse coursework, collective unconscious to a reservoir which stored all the gatorade, experiences and knowledge of the human species, and this was one of the clear distinctions between the Jungian definition of the unconscious and the Freudian.
Jung’s proof of the my family my identity, collective unconscious was his concept of synchronicity, or the unexplainable feelings of connectedness that we all share. Jung had an essay, inexhaustible knowledge of mythology, religion and philosophy, and was particularly knowledgeable in the symbolism connected to traditions such as Alchemy, Kabala, Buddhism and Hinduism. Utilising this vast knowledge, Jung believed that humans experienced the unconscious through numerous symbols encountered in various aspects of life such as dreams, art, and religion. While Jungian theory has numerous critics, Carl Jung’s work has left a notable impact on the field of essay on romance psychology. His concepts of introversion and extraversion have contributed extensively to personality psychology and have also greatly influenced psychotherapy. Freud vs Jung – Key Differences Disagreements.
Disagreement 1: The Unconscious Mind. One of the central disagreements between Jung and Freud was their differing conceptions of the unconscious. Freud’s Position: Freud believed the essay, unconscious mind was the epicentre of our repressed thoughts, traumatic memories, and fundamental drives of mla essay maker sex and aggression. He saw it as a storage facility for all hidden sexual desires, resulting in neuroses, or what we would nowadays call mental illness. He declared that the human mind centres upon three structures – the id, the ego and essay the super ego. Citation. The id forms our unconscious drives (mainly sex), and is not bound by morality but instead only seeks to satisfy pleasure.
The ego is our conscious perceptions, memories and thoughts that enable us to deal effectively with reality. The superego attempts to mediate the drives of the id through socially acceptable behaviours. Jung’s Position: Jung also divided the human psyche into three parts. Gatorade Essay. But in Jung’s view the unconscious was divided into the ego, the on romance, personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. Essay. To Jung, the ego is the conscious, the for extended, personal unconscious includes memories (both recalled and suppressed) and gatorade the collective unconscious holds our experiences as a species or knowledge that we are born with (for example, love at first sight). Jung’s take on for extended, the human psyche was inspired by his studies into Eastern philosophy and religion such as Buddhism and gatorade essay Hinduism. He also believed that the contents of the unconscious are not restricted to repressed material. Freud’s Position: Freud believed that we could learn much about an individual through the interpretation of essay on romance dreams. Freud argued that when we are awake our deepest desires are not acted upon because a) there are the gatorade, considerations of reality (the ego) and also morality (the superego) . But during sleep these restraining forces are weakened and we may experience our desires through our dreams. Freud also believed that our dreams are able to access repressed or anxiety provoking thoughts (mainly sexually repressed desires) that cannot be entertained directly for fear of anxiety and embarrassment. Handling Data Gcse. Thus, defence mechanisms allow a desire or thought to slip through into our dreams in a disguised, symbolic form – for example, someone dreaming of a large stick in essay, Freud’s view would be dreaming of a penis.
It was the job of the economics topics essay, analyst to interpret these dreams in light of their true meaning. Jung Position: Like Freud, Jung believed that dream analysis allowed for a window into the unconscious mind. But unlike Freud, Jung did not believe that that the content of all dreams was necessarily sexual in nature or that they disguised their true meaning. Instead Jung’s depiction of gatorade essay dreams concentrated more on symbolic imagery. he believed dreams could have many different meanings according to the dreamer’s associations . Jung was against citation maker the idea of gatorade a ‘dream dictionary’ where dreams are interpreted by fixed meanings. He claimed dreams speak in a distinctive language of symbols, images, and metaphors and that they portray both the handling data gcse coursework, external world (i.e. Gatorade. individuals and places in a person’s day to day life), as well as the persons internal world (feelings, thoughts and emotions). Jung agreed that dreams could be retrospective in nature and reflect events in childhood, but he also felt that they could anticipate future events and could be great sources of creativity. Jung criticised Freud for focusing purely on the external and objective aspects of on romance genre a person’s dream rather than looking at gatorade both objective and subjective content. Essay On Romance. Finally, one of the more distinctive aspects of Jung’s dream theory was that dreams could express personal, as well as collective or universal contents. Essay. This universal or collective content was displayed through what Jung termed ‘Archetypes’. Archetypes are universally inherited prototypes which help us to perceive and act in a certain way. Essay On Thomas Vs Alexander Hamilton. Jung argued that our distant ancestor’s experience of universal concepts like God, water, and earth were transmitted through the generations.
People in every time period have been influenced by their ancestor’s experiences. This means that the contents of the collective unconscious are the same for each individuals within a culture. These Archetypes are symbolically expressed through dreams, fantasies and hallucinations. Freud’s Position: One of the biggest areas of conflicts, if not the biggest, between Freud and Jung was their differing views of human motivation. To Freud, repressed and expressed sexuality was everything. He felt it was the biggest motivating force behind behaviour (and as such psychopathology). This is clear from his dogmatic theories regarding psychosexual development, as well as the infamous theories of the Oedipus complex, and to a lesser extent, the Electra complex. In the Greek Tragedy, Oedipus Rex, a young man unknowingly murders his father, marries his mother and essay has several children by her. In his Oedipus Complex, Freud suggests that male children have strong sexual desires towards their mothers and have savage resentment towards their fathers (competition for the mother). Handling Data Gcse Coursework. In the Electra complex, this is reversed in that it is the female children who have sexual desires towards their fathers, and wish to remove their mothers. From this, young male children fear that their fathers will remove or damage their penises in essay, punishment for their feelings towards their mother (Castration Anxiety).
For female children, the data coursework, realisation that they do not have a penis, and gatorade essay that they cannot have a relationship with their mother, leads to penis envy in which they desire their father’s penis. This then moves on to sexual desire for the father. Economics For Extended. Freud theorised that these anxieties will then be repressed and will play out through defence mechanisms and anxiety. Jung’s Position: Jung felt that Freud’s attention was too focused upon sex and its impact on behaviour . Gatorade Essay. Jung decided that what motivates and economics influences behaviour is a psychic energy or life force, of which sexuality could be only one potential manifestation. Jung also disagreed also with Oedipal impulses. He thought that the relationship between mother and child was based upon the love and protection granted by the mother to gatorade essay, the child. These views were to be later built upon by citation John Bowlby and Main Ainsworth in basic Attachment Theory and gatorade Internal Working Models. Freud’s Position: Although Jewish by mla essay heritage, Freud felt that religion was an escape for most people.
Like Karl Marx, he felt that religion was the gatorade essay, ‘opiate’ of the masses and that it should not be propagated. That said ,Freud grappled with the problem of Problems Marrying Young mythology and religious institutions for most of his life. He collected many antiquities, most of which were religious, and a Leonardo cartoon, ‘Madonna and Child with St Anne’ hung in his house. Some scholars have suggested that Freud saw religion as the disguised psychological truths he felt lie at the heart of human mental distress. Jung’s Position: Religion in Jung’s view was a necessary part of the individuation process, and offered a method of essay communication between humans. This was based upon the idea that the archetypes and symbols present in many of the different religions all translate into genre the same meanings.
Although he did not practice a specific religion, Jung was curious and explored religions from the archetypal view point, particularly Eastern philosophies and religions. During the gatorade, arguments and correspondence between Freud and Jung, Freud accused Jung of anti-Semitism . Disagreement 5: Para-Psychology. Freud’s position: He was a complete sceptic about all things paranormal. Jung’s position: Jung was heavily interested in jefferson vs alexander, the field of para-psychology and in gatorade essay, particular psychic phenomenon such as telepathy and synchronicity (which would come to form part of his theories). In his youth, Jung often attended seances and his doctoral thesis investigated ‘The Psychology and Pathology of So Called Occult Phenomena’ which featured his cousin as the medium. In 1909, Jung had visited Freud in Vienna to discuss Freud’s views on the paranormal.
As they talked it soon became clear that Freud had little time for such ideas and continued to discourage Jung from pursuing them. As they continued to economics topics, talk, Jung felt a weird sensation in his abdomen. Just as Jung became aware of these sensations a loud noise erupted from gatorade essay a bookcase standing next to them. Jung claimed that it must have been of paranormal origin, but Freud angrily disagreed. As they continued to argue, Jung claimed that the noise would happened again – which it did. My Family Essay. Both men stared at each other in amazement but never spoke about the incident again.
This lifelong interest in the paranormal and its impact on human psychology contributed significantly to the development of gatorade essay Jung’s influential but controversial theory of data gcse coursework synchronicity. This term was coined by Jung to gatorade essay, describe ‘a causal connection of two or more psycho-physic phenomena’. This theory was inspired by a patient’s case where the patient dreamt of essay jefferson hamilton a golden scarab. The next day, during the psychotherapy session, a real golden scarab hit the window – a very rare event! The proximity of gatorade these two events led Jung to believe that it was no coincidence but an important link between the external and internal worlds of the individual. In looking at Freud vs Jung, it is important to put the differences between them in the context of their personalities and also in the cultural time period of which they lived and worked. And it is also valid to on romance genre, recognise that there are also significant similarities. Both men in the beginning of their friendship were tremendously excited by each other’s intellectual company and essay initially spent thirteen hours in deep conversation sharing their thoughts on the unconscious and methods of treating psychopathology. They both gave rise to the idea of an Problems With at a, unconscious and gatorade the importance of dreams in understanding problems. And as to the question who was the winner in the battle of Freud vs Jung, the answer is that modern day psychotherapy won, with their theories so important that they are still behind many psychotherapeutic approaches use today.
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Shambhala Publications. Hogenson, G. (1994). Jung’s Struggle with Freud. Chiron Publications. Hydge, M. (1991). Jung and Astrology: Catching the Golden Scarab. Mandala. Jung, C.G., Freud, S., McGuire, W. (1995). The Freud/Jung Letters: Correspondence Between Sigmund Freud and C.G Jung. Routledge.
Palmer, M. (1997). Freud and Jung on Religion. Routledge. Snowden, R. (2010a). Jung: The Key Ideas . Teach Yourself. Snowden, R. (2010b). Freud: The Key Ideas. Teach Yourself. Stevens, A. (2001). Jung: A Very Short Introduction.
Oxford Paperbacks. Storr, A. (2001). Freud. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford Paperbacks. Wilson, C. (1988). Young Age. C.G Jung: Lord of the Underworld. Aeon Books. The collective unconscious was a radical concept in its time.
Created by Carl Jung, it Jungian Psychology and Carl Jung- Read this quick guide to essay, Jungian concepts, analytical psychology, and When we are ‘conscious’ of something, we are aware of it. So the conscious mind, From cave paintings to modern day 'emoticons', symbols have existed for thousands of years, and Freud's Main Theories include Psychosexual Development, The Oedipus Complex, 'Id, Ego, Superego' and the Unconscious.
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