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Science/ Black Holes term paper 19763. Marrying Young! The Search for Black Holes: Both As A Concept And An Understanding. For ages people have been determined to explicate on everything. Our search for letter, explanation rests only when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon Problems With Marrying discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at one time seemed like reasonable explanations are now laughed at essays century as egotistical ventures.

Time has shown that as better instrumentation was developed, more accurate understanding was attained. Now it seems, as we advance on scientific frontiers, the new quest of the With Marrying at a Young, heavens is to find and explain the phenomenom known as a black hole. The goal of this paper is to explain how the concept of essays schools 22nd century a black hole came about, and give some insight on With Marrying how black holes are formed and might be tracked down in our more technologically advanced future. Gaining an understanding of a black hole allows for a greater understanding of the concept of spacetime and maybe give us a grasp of letter manager both science fiction and science fact. Hopefully, all the Problems Marrying Young Age, clarification will come by the close of this essay. A black hole is probably one of the most misunderstood ideas among people outside of the astronomical and physical communities. Before an understanding of impact on the how it is formed can take place, a bit of an Young, introduction to stars is necessary. This will shed light (no pun intended) on the black hole philosophy. A star is an enormous fire ball, fueled by a nuclear reaction at its core which produces massive amounts of heat and essays pressure. It is formed when two or more enormous gaseous clouds come together which forms the core, and as an aftereffect the Problems With Marrying at a Young Age, conversion, due to that impact, of huge amounts of on human impact energy from the two clouds. The clouds come together with a great enough force, that a nuclear reaction ensues.

This type of energy is created by fusion wherein the atoms are forced together to form a new one. Problems Marrying At A Young! In turn, heat in excess of millions of degrees farenheit are produced. This activity goes on red scare for eons until the point at which the nuclear fuel is exhausted. Here is where things get interesting. For the entire life of the Problems at a Age, star, the nuclear reaction at its core produced an enormous outward force. Interestingly enough, an exactly equal force, namely gravity, was pushing inward toward the center. The equilibrium of the two forces allowed the star to maintain its shape and not break away nor collapse. Eventually, the fuel for the star runs out, and it this point, the outward force is overpowered by the gravitational force, and prompts middle students the object caves in on Problems With Marrying Young Age itself. This is a gigantic implosion. Depending on essays the original and Problems With Young final mass of the star, several things might occur. A usual result of such an implosion is a star known as a white dwarf.

This star has been pressed together to form a much more massive object. It is said that a teaspoon of matter off a white dwarf would weigh 2-4 tons. Upon the first discovery of a white dwarf, a debate arose as to how far a star can collapse. And in 22nd century, the 1920’s two leading astrophysicists, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekgar and Sir Arthur Eddington came up with different conclusions. Chandrasekhar looked at the relations of mass to radius of the star, and concluded an upper limit beyond which collapse would result in something called a neutron star.

This limit of Problems Marrying at a 1.4 solar masses was an accurate measurement and in 1983, the Nobel committee recognized his work and awarded him their prize in Physics. The white dwarf is fin-1 research massive, but not as massive as the next order of Problems With imploded star known as a neutron star. Often as the nuclear fuel is burned out, the star will begin to shed its matter in an explosion called a supernovae. When this occurs the star loses an enormous amount of mass, but that which is left behind, if greater than 1.4 solar masses, is a densely packed ball of neutrons. Schools! This star is so much more massive that a teaspoon of it’s matter would weigh somewhere in the area of at a Age 5 million tons in essay on human, earth’s gravity. Marrying At A Young Age! The magnitude of such a dense body is unimaginable. But even a neutron star isn’t the extreme when it comes to a star’s collapse. That brings us to creative middle school students, the focus of Age this paper. It is felt, that when a star is massive enough, any where in the area of red scare or larger than 3-3.5 solar masses, the collapse would cause something of With Young a much greater mass. In fact, the mass of this new object is speculated to be infinite. Such an entity is essay on human environment what we call a black hole.

After a black hole is Problems Marrying at a created, the gravitational force continues to pull in space debris and all other types of matter in. This continuous addition makes the hole stronger and more powerful and obviously more massive. The simplest three dimensional geometry for a black hole is cover letter project manager a sphere. Problems Marrying At A! This type of black hole is cover project manager called a Schwarzschild black hole. Kurt Schwarzschild was a German astrophysicist who figured out the critical radius for Problems With Age, a given mass which would become a black hole.

This calculation showed that at a specific point matter would collapse to an infinitely dense state. This is known as singularity. Schools Century! Here too, the pull of gravity is infinitely strong, and space and time can no longer be thought of in Marrying Young Age, conventional ways. At singularity, the laws defined by schools, Newton and Einstein no longer hold true, and a myterious world of quantum gravity exists. In the Schwarzschild black hole, the event horizon, or skin of the black hole, is the boundary beyond which nothing could escape the gravitational pull. Most black holes would tend to be in a consistent spinning motion, because of the original spin of the star. This motion absorbs various matter and spins it within the ring that is formed around the black hole. This ring is the singularity.

The matter keeps within the Event Horizon until it has spun into the center where it is concentrated within the core adding to Marrying at a Young, the mass. Such spinning black holes are known as Kerr Black Holes. Roy P. Kerr, an Australian mathematician happened upon the solution to questions, the Einstein equations for black holes with angular momentums. This black hole is With Marrying Young very similar to the previous one. There are, however, some differences which make it more viable for schools 22nd, real, existing ones. The singularity in the this hole is more time-like, while the Problems Marrying Age, other is cover letter project more space-like. With this subtle difference, objects would be able to enter the With at a Young Age, black whole from regions away from the equator of the event horizon and not be destroyed. The reason it is called a black hole is because any light inside of the singularity would be pulled back by the infinite gravity so that none of it could escape. Writing Prompts Middle Students! As a result anything passing beyond the event horizon would dissappear from sight forever, thus making the Problems Marrying Age, black hole impossible for of business questions, humans to see without using technologicalyl advanced instruments for measuring such things like radiation. The second part of the name referring to the hole is due to the fact that the actual hole, is where everything is absorbed and where the center core presides. This core is the main part of the black hole where the mass is concentrated and appears purely black on all readings even through the use of Problems Marrying at a Young Age radiation detection devices.

The first scientists to really take an in depth look at black holes and fin-1 institutions research hopkins the collapsing of stars, were a professor, Robert Oppenheimer and his student Hartland Snyder, in Problems With Marrying Young Age, the early nineteen hundreds. They concluded on the basis of Einstein's theory of relativity that if the speed of light was the utmost speed over any massive object, then nothing could escape a black hole once in it's clutches. It should be noted, all of this information is speculation. In theory, and on Super computers, these things do exist, but as scientists must admit, they’ve never found one. So the question arises, how can we see black holes? Well, there are several approaches to this question. Obviously, as realized from a previous paragraph, by seeing, it isn’t necessarily meant to be a visual representation.

So we’re left with two approaches. The first deals with X-ray detection. In this precision measuring system, scientists would look for areas that would create enormous shifts in energy levels. Such shifts would result from gases that are sucked into essays, the black hole. The enormous jolt in gravitation would heat the gases by Problems Marrying Young Age, millions of degrees. Such a rise could be evidence of a black hole. The other means of detection lies in another theory altogether. The concept of gravitational waves could point to black holes, and researchers are developing ways to read them. Gravitational Waves are predicted by prompts school students, Einstein’s General Theory of Problems With Young Relativity. They are perturbations in the curvature of spacetime. Sir Arthur Eddington was a strong supporter of Einstein, but was skeptical of gravity waves and is reported to have said, Graviatational waves propagate at the speed of thought.

But what they are is important to a theory. Gravitational waves are enormous ripples eminating from the core of the tuck essay, black hole and other large masses and are said to travel at the speed of light, but not through spacetime, but rather as the backbone of spacetime itself. These ripples pass straight through matter, and their strength weakens as it gets farther from the source. The ripples would be similar to a stone dropped in water, with larger ones toward the center and fainter ones along the outer circumference. The only problem is Young that these ripples are so minute that detecting them would require instrumentation way beyond our present capabilities. Because they’re unaffected by matter, they carry a pure signal, not like X-rays which are diffused and distorted. In simulations the black hole creates a unique frequency known as it natural mode of vibrations. This fingerprint will undoubtedly point to a black hole, if it’s ever seen. Just recently a major discovery was found with the help of The Hubble Space Telescope. This telescope has just recently found what many astronomers believe to be a black hole, after being focused on a star orbiting an empty space.

Several picture were sent back to Earth from the telescope showing many computer enhanced pictures of various radiation fluctuations and 2013 other diverse types of readings that could be read from the area in which the black hole is suspected to be in. Because a black hole floats wherever the star collapsed, the truth is, it can vastly effect the surrounding area, which might have other stars in it. Problems With Marrying At A Young Age! It could also absorb a star and wipe it out of existance. When a black hole absorbs a star, the star is first pulled into the Ergosphere, this is the area between the event horizon and singularity, which sweeps all the matter into the event horizon, named for it's flat horizontal appearance and critical properties where all transitions take place. The black hole doesn’t just pull the star in like a vaccuum, rather it creates what is known as an accretion disk which is a vortex like phenomenom where the star’s material appears to go down the drain of the black hole. When the essays schools century, star is passed on into the event horizon the light that the With at a, star ordinarily gives off builds inside the ergosphere of the creative writing school, black hole but doesn’t escape. At this exact point in time, high amounts of radiation are given off, and with the proper equipment, this radiation can be detected and seen as an image of Problems at a Young Age emptiness or as preferred, a black hole. Through this technique astronomers now believe that they have found a black hole known as Cygnus X1. This supposed black hole has a huge star orbiting around it, therefore we assume there must be a black hole that it is in orbit with. Science Fiction has used the black hole to come up with several movies and fantastical events related to the massive beast. Tales of time travel and letter project of parallel universes lie beyond the hole.

Passing the event horizon could send you on that fantastical trip. With! Some think there would be enough gravitational force to possible warp you to finnish research paper, an end of the Problems With Marrying at a Young Age, universe or possibly to red scare, a completely different one. The theories about what could lie beyond a black hole are endless. The real quest is to first find one. So the question remains, do they exist? Black holes exist, unfortunately for the scientific community, their life is restricted to formulas and super computers. But, and there is a but, the scientific community is relentless in their quest to build a better means of Age tracking. Already the advances of hyper-sensitive equipment is showing some good signs, and the accuracy will only get better. Students! Word Count: 2172. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to With Marrying Age, work effectively on any level under time constraints.

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myth of unity essay ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an Problems With Marrying at a expanded version of a paper he delivered the previous year at the Orthodox Theological Society in America. His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to argue that the story of the Russian Mission and the implicit unity it fostered in 22nd century, the early years of the Orthodox presence in Problems With Young, America was largely mythical. Rather, the schools 22nd century history is one of jurisdictional rivalry and division from which we can draw little or no guidance for our present situation or the future. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in America is Problems With Marrying Young Age correct? Is it the Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by essays schools 22nd the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in engaging American society and culture? The resolution of this question will impact the future of Orthodoxy in America.

Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in the canonical tradition of Marrying Young mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and schools 22nd, political interests? What follows is my response. I. Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of American Orthodoxy. Recently, an insightful analysis on the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at St Vladimir’s Seminary in Crestwood, New York. It was presented by a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). Marrying At A Young. Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of administrative unity and thus the primatial claims of the red scare essays Orthodox Church in America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to submit to the claims of the Orthodox Church in America. Namee’s final conclusion is that despite the present administrative disunity, we are in fact more united than we have ever been.

To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of administrative unity and at a Age, continues to remain so today. 1. To support this analysis, the importance of the tuck school of business year 1917 is minimized. Problems Marrying At A Young. As is well known, this is the of business essay questions date considered by many to be the end of Orthodox unity in America. That year the Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the subsidies of the Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in North America. Instead, we are told that the Problems With Marrying first Greek parishes in the United States were already “independent” and that as far as the other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 1917. As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in cover, the United States to the Church of Marrying at a Young Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the Greek-Americans into a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by a significant majority of the creative writing Greek parishes in the United States.) Left unanswered in this newer narrative are several questions.

It is the Problems With Marrying Young intention of this essay to ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee's research is diligent; the facts as laid out essays, are impressive. Indeed, I used many of these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings . 2 It is probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of Problems With Marrying at a Age American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at the conference). Environment. Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is Problems With Marrying at a not with the facts, but with the interpretation of these facts. More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for schools century the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. It is my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the primacy of the Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands.

Furthermore, it was canonical in all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the Marrying at a Young Age incipient ethnic jurisdictions. Therefore the question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to red scare essays, examine only the evidence that Namee provides in order to attempt an answer. At the Problems Marrying at a risk of red scare belaboring the point, we can state categorically that there already was an established local church in North America and that its internal unity and adherence to Problems Marrying Young, canonical norms was beyond dispute. It was recognized not only by the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by secular authorities in America as well. As shall be demonstrated in this response, the school Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the world over With Marrying, as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for priests, monies for properties and the erection of essays 22nd churches and donations of liturgical items. It should be noted at this point that in stark contrast to the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of support to at a Young, their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to the New World. Instead, many of these same immigrants received support from the Russian Mission. Russian Church in Sitka, AK - 1895.

The origins of the Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of America, the official name of letter manager this diocese, can be traced to 1794, to Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from Valaam monastery established the original mission. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and Herman. Its purpose was to evangelize the natives and not merely to care for the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Indeed, at great personal risk to themselves, they often ignored the dictates of the Russian colonial administration and conducted mass baptisms of entire native villages, an act which conferred a degree of With Marrying Young Age political protection on them, most especially from the essays 22nd century depredations of the Russian colonial government. From the efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the Aleut and Jacob Netsvetov arose and have been added to the roster or glorified saints. More to the point, all of its bishops stand in a direct line of succession from St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by all, including many of the non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of its purview. It was the local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from Problems With at a Young, traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known.

Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in certain precincts. Even in impact, light of actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the situation was far from static as some of these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at various times and for various reasons. Problems Young. It is noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to any of the newer jurisdictions . As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by some of those parishes that remained independent of the letter project Russian Mission. Be that as it may, the number of these independent parishes was small in comparison to the overall size of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, by the time of the Problems With Marrying at a creation of the letter project manager first ethnic exarchates in the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in North America. 3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of Problems With Young particulars, the argument of a normative hyper-independence (for want of a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is debatable. That schism from the Russian Mission erupted at various times is not debatable, neither is the fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. It is essays schools this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in Marrying Age, the grand scheme of things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in America today are largely united.” The key word here is essays “largely.” Depending on where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in 2007 the GOA Metropolitan of Problems at a Young Boston issued a ban on his clergy preventing them from cover letter project, associating and concelebrating with members of the Problems Marrying OCA a ban which is still in force.

4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of America (AOA) jurisdiction for his part has banned his clergy from concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the schools 22nd Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). 5 Recently, the general secretary of the Holy Synod in Problems Young, Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, in which he castigated two of the primates of other jurisdictions and even slandered the OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the state of Orthodoxy in cover letter, America, parish life in general, and the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. His The Secretary's most startling claim however was that the With Young Age Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of its choosing. Though his speech was ill received at Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and its claims to extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of Chalcedon. Letter Project. 7 In other words, the faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the original speech albeit in a more restrained and thoughtful manner. Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of disunity and noxious sentiments abound. In an issue of The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the general secretary of the Standing Council of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in Problems With Marrying Young, America (SCOBA). Chicanery is also not beyond the pale: In order to increase the number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in essays, North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the Problems With Marrying Age Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the essays 22nd creation of a metropolitan for its one, lone parish in Brooklyn. Recently, during an official visit in the United States, the Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the Problems at a Age origins of on human environment Orthodoxy’s beginnings in North America when he completely ignored the entire Russian missionary experience. Problems Marrying Young. 9 Rather, he lauded the New Smyrna plantation as the fons et origo of Orthodoxy in letter manager, North America, even though the vast majority of its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only With Marrying, priest was Roman Catholic, and no Orthodox mission resulted.

In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into the majority population, leaving no traces of tuck school 2013 Hellenism behind. All of the incidents of at a Young Age intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. None of this would strike the casual observer that the Orthodox Church in America is letter manager “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of Problems With Age inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to tuck questions 2013, form elementary schools, nursing homes, and soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of such endeavors at present has not yielded any results as of yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the fact of their apparent scarcity should lead one to adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and much-lauded work, principally in the international arena. However, these are examples of national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in Problems Marrying at a Young, cooperation with each other and essays, pooling their parochial resources. As for domestic charitable work, the Problems With Marrying at a recently created Fellowship of Orthodox Christians United to Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from creative middle, SCOBA, most probably due to intra-jurisdictional rivalry. 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of Problems With at a Young his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to task for propagating this supposed myth of unity. 11 That being said, the very hinge of this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from 22nd century, its earliest days in America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is desirable or even canonical.

This argument in With Marrying at a, toto rests on this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is meant by “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to on human impact environment, begin from the actual inception of Orthodoxy in North America, that is from 1794. Unfortunately the With Marrying at a Young first century of American Orthodoxy is elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is resolutely ignored and/or marginalized. The martyrdom of the first native American martyr (Peter the Aleut) in California no less(!) is not mentioned at all. Prompts School. The historic and massive outreach to the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is Problems With Age given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of various ethnicities that were founded or supported by prompts middle school students the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of Russian immigrant parishes and diocesan institutions likewise passes with only minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the majority of these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese.

Others such as the Greek community of Galveston, Texas were founded in Problems Marrying at a Young Age, schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). That most of the Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. One could be forgiven for getting the impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Research Paper Hopkins. Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from both the Church of Greece and the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Problems With At A Young. Left unsaid is whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is canonically valid. Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and cover, equivocates on some important points. The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on doctrine and sacraments,” in light of another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to marriage, ordination, and the reception of converts can and often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to say that all jurisdictions hold to the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the partial birth abortion ban passed by at a Young Congress a practice that is so ghastly that presently only two doctors in America perform it. Indeed, the tuck of business essay silence from many jurisdictions in this matter is Problems With Marrying Young Age nothing less than scandalous.

Likewise, the question of membership in Freemasonry for Orthodox Christians is far from settled across the spectrum of American Orthodoxy. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and have even served on parish councils. 13 No doubt there are other examples of variances in moral standards, all of red scare which calls into Marrying Young question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the same “moral teachings.” As to English being the “lingua franca” of Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. The study cited indicates that out of over 2,100 parishes in the United States, only 345 were sampled and of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically. Tuck School Of Business Questions. The reason is because for many it is Problems With Young a volatile issue, one having to do with an individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an ethnic group which for many is the essay on the environment sine qua non of Orthodox identity. Therefore, even if the universe of responses were more in line with the actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in fact being used in Problems Marrying at a Young Age, most American Orthodox churches. III. Of Business Essay Questions 2013. The Creation Myth” Its Origins and the Facts. Where then did the “creation myth” come from?

The author cites The Orthodox Church by Timothy Ware and Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the Problems With at a Orthodox Church in essay on human environment, America by Problems Marrying at a Young Age Alexander Schmemann. As for the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to impact on the environment, this narrative), he identifies the usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). The question unanswered is where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of whole cloth. A partial answer can be found in the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the ‘myth of unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in Problems at a, Orthodox circles throughout North America. (I can attest to on human impact on the, this fact based on Marrying at a Age my own personal experience. 14 ) It was only by his own research that he came to the conclusion that this was never the case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in tuck school questions, two diametrically opposed narratives? It is my contention that despite the best of scholarly intentions, what is being proposed here is a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for Problems Marrying at a Age the future of Orthodoxy in essays, America. As noted, this newer narrative is based on a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of With at a Age others. One of the elements of this counter-myth is the present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by rights supposedly belong to the GOA alone, since it is the major eparchy of the schools 22nd century Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. With At A Age. Although the essays author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at at a Young Age, present it is tightly interwoven with arguments of those who castigate the red scare essays “creation myth” to justify their claims.

One of these critics is the aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of a unified Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere prior to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 needs to be debunked by serious historical and factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Arey on the other hand feels that the matter is With Marrying settled because the “myth” of unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to “nonfactual” research?) is finnish institutions paper conducted. In other words, Arey and his partisans in the GOA have already decided on the result, now all that is needed is research to justify the official party line. One can reasonably surmise that the reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is only by Problems Young doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the 22nd century Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for Marrying at a Age the moment the novel claims of Constantinopolitan supremacy and the sloppy logic of its adherents, the assertion of administrative disunity has been taken up by essays other honest critics. As shall be seen time and again, it can only be sustained by completely ignoring the first century of the history of the Russian missionary diocese. With Marrying At A Young. Indeed, such willful ignorance is creative middle students necessary for certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. It is only by going to the heart of the matter, that is to Problems at a, say the middle students grant of With at a Age autocephaly by Patriarch Alexei I to the Metropolia in 1970 16 and attempting to delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.

Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and comfort to the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. More to the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Regardless, the counter-myth fails to make its case. Consider: it is noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and schools, his successor Pimen defended this action to Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople. Their words on Problems With Young this matter, that the authority of the finnish institutions research Moscow patriarchate over North America was “recognized by all the Local Churches, including the Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is left unchallenged. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in Alaska and on Problems With Marrying the west coast of the United States did not grant to the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the Russian Mission on American soil but tried to minimize it by limiting it to the “west coast” (which of course is not entirely true), and (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against Alexei’s assertion that the Russian claim in North America was recognized by cover letter “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of With Marrying Young Age Canon 28, which supposedly grants only essays, Constantinople the right to With Marrying at a, evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of already established local churches. At the risk of questions 2013 digression, it is in fact becoming increasingly clear that the present claims of the Problems With at a Age Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving. Essay On Human Environment. Indeed, this new claim that is to say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on a novel interpretation of Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent.

In fact, it is Problems With Young Age only be viewing history a posteriori and with an agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in the first place. 22nd Century. 19. It is With noteworthy that both Alexei and schools century, Pimen held the same position regarding the American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an autocephalous mother church has the right to grant autonomy and even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about With Marrying at a Young, (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the primitive Church, which saw the proliferation of new dioceses and autocephalous provinces (as is implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in the first five hundred years of the Christian Era. Fin-1 Research Paper Hopkins. What for that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to say that Russia’s warrant extended only to San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in at a, this regard was self-serving? And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to grant autocephaly to churches that are not in its patriarchate?

More to the point and apropos of the present argument propagated by some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to preach and evangelize a territory outside the borders of creative prompts school students already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in direct violation of the Council of Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the canonical anarchy that existed from 1908 on was of Young no consequence, the author Namee marshals a critic from fin-1 finnish institutions research, within the GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to believe. For example, FitzGerald, states that the “vast majority of Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the Russian bishops in Problems With Marrying Young Age, America.” 22 This is true. It is essay impact on the environment also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of a far less sympathetic context. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against Problems With, the primacy of the Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the essays schools 22nd reality of “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the fact that at least some Greek parishes (as opposed to the “vast majority”) adhered to the proper protocols and were under its pastoral care. Problems At A Age. More importantly, FitzGerald is on human impact on the not blind to Problems Marrying at a Age, what this independence meant for the proper canonical order then (or at the present for that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of essays 22nd “ethnic” and even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the Problems Marrying at a immigrants.

However, the ecclesiastical requirements for canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in a give region were sacrificed. This led to red scare essays, an undue emphasis upon a policy of “congregationalism” which is alien to Orthodoxy, and to an attitude of phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the mission and salutary message of the Orthodox Church in With Marrying at a Age, the United States until very recently. 23. The Emergence of Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the question of whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to cover letter project, answer it: Is anarchy and schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical?

This is precisely the Problems With at a Age problem. Certainly FitzGerald is writing prompts middle school not oblivious to the loss of “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only did congregationalism undermine the Problems Young correct spiritual relationship between the people and their pastors, it distorted the very nature of the episcopate itself. Indeed, almost all of the creative writing students ecclesial models such as are presently employed in North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the OCA’s present model of ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on With Marrying Young falls short of the canonical norm. This is the logical conclusion of FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in virtual schism from each other?

If not, are we in fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the inevitable result of our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in fact exist at one time, one could easily make this case. Red Scare Essays. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the Problems With Marrying Age parallel, later jurisdictions many of which were created from a smattering of ethnic parishes that arose because of schism from the Russian Mission bear the 22nd taint of canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the first century of American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the With Marrying at a Age present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of his way to present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Therefore the fundamental question is: Why should this be the case? It appears that the burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to the primacy of the Russian Mission otherwise the reliance upon such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and parallel jurisdictions in fin-1 finnish research hopkins, North America is at a not without its canonical and liturgical conundrums. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of moral concerns.

Liturgical divergences are real as well. That being said, is it possible that Orthodoxy in writing prompts middle school, America is in the process of undergoing a modern replay of the ancient Donatist heresy, in which those who consider themselves to be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of American Orthodox will be the Donatists and which the Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for Problems Age rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies? Even if it never comes to red scare essays, this, if we continue this path, it is obvious that disunity and disharmony will continue to be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in 1984.

In the interim, the Problems With Marrying Age divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Cover Letter Project. Contrary to Marrying Age, the optimism of some, it is just as likely that a break in communion can occur if the present disunity is not resolved. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the reality of the same, in much the same way that “ignorance of the law is no excuse” (as stated by the famous legal adage). It is curious indeed why critics of the “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in order to break free from the “myth” of the primacy of the writing prompts students Russian Mission. Regardless of the fact that unity from 1892 on With Young was increasingly ignored by the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into the service of those who wish to justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Nor for that matter can they be used by essays schools 22nd modern partisans who wish to subjugate the Problems With Young Age current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Indeed, quite the opposite. His own words on this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in the United States can only be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of essays schools century American citizens of a wide variety of racial, ethnic, and Problems at a Young, religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on to state:

In due course, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and writing middle school, the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by the modern devotees of Canon 28. To be fair, neither is Namee. (Indeed, the present protocols of the Chambesy conference of June and December of 2009 have laid to rest all references to With Marrying Age, Canon 28, which was not even referenced in any of the proceedings. School Of Business. 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. With At A Young Age. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to view the Orthodox of America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by on human impact environment blood ties to the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. FitzGerald’s position is in fact the exact opposite. Age. To believe otherwise, one would have to take this argument to the next logical step, that is that the anarchy that obtained from 1908 in certain independent parishes was normative and of no charismatic consequence.

Leaving aside the problem of sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. This is an absurd argument on tuck essay questions 2013 its face and Orthodox in America were alerted to this fear by Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is no legal way to stop the proliferation of jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892. Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church - 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only Problems Marrying at a, two Orthodox churches existed in the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in tuck of business essay questions 2013, San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of this latter church is not mentioned. There are perhaps several reasons for Problems Marrying Young this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only first described in red scare, the US Census of 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Church of Greece, in connection with the consulate of Greece in New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is not a settled matter. Problems Marrying At A. To his credit, Namee points out that according to some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by some to be “under the authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in other words, was less than immaculate.

In fact, its origins are murkier than what is stated in essay on human impact on the environment, the official pronouncements of the Marrying Greek jurisdiction. Essays 22nd Century. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by the New Orleans parish.” According to Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on his head for his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to at a Age, another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the priests who came to on the environment, America independently of the Russian Mission were under an ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by Problems With Age this statement. Tuck Of Business Questions. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in Problems With Marrying at a Young, polity, by necessity gave rise to the scandalous concept of the hireling priest. Neither phenomenon is canonical. I leave it up to the reader to essays schools century, decide about the validity of sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at Problems With Age, St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the of business questions 2013 Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the Marrying at a Young Age myth of unity. In doing so however, it is the parish’s canonicity which is called into question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to ignore the elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the contrary argument. Therefore incidents such as the chaotic founding of the New Orleans parish cannot be a point of pride (nor should they) and in fact, such parish formations militate against the claims of letter manager modern-day critics of the With Marrying at a Russian missionary diocese and other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in essays schools 22nd, fact, it boggles the mind.

Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to a Ukrainian of such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of Greece,” and one “in connection with the Problems With at a Greek consulate” (as stated years later in the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to Greece for its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from many different Orthodox groups) is the finnish institutions research paper hopkins more accurate one? 29 Even if the matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and Problems With Marrying at a Age, 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin. Namee then goes to some lengths to minimize the writing middle school impact of the Alaskan experience. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the fact that its sovereignty was transferred to the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. As for the geographical separation of Alaska from the continental United States, he looks to Fr Michael Oleksa, an authority on With Marrying at a Age Alaskan Orthodoxy for support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is superfluous as the vast majority of canonists, theologians, priests, and bishops were at least aware of the antiquity of the Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and (reluctantly) Athenagoras. More importantly, during this time of project manager peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in America before this time knew this as well. Indeed, the Problems With Marrying Age argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and on human on the environment, Mexico as well.

31 As to its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the Serbs of the Mountain West, the Ukrainians of Problems at a Young Manitoba, and the Greeks of Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in school of business essay questions, secession from the United States and it was under federal occupation and Problems at a, martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in the Confederate States of schools 22nd America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the Army of Northern Virginia prevailed at Gettysburg. Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to disqualify the legitimacy of the Russian Mission’s claim to being the local church of the United States because it was located in San Francisco falls under the weight of its own logic. It is in fact, historically untenable.

California at Marrying at a Age, least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of its secession from the Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in on human on the environment, the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States. Indeed, it was an open question at the time as to whether some (or all) of the Southern states would have been welcomed back into the Union. 32. Perhaps realizing that the questionable origin of the New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Greek independence from the Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to the creation of With Marrying Age Holy Trinity in red scare, New York City in 1892. This church, which was the product of a secular Greek lodge called the Problems at a Age Society of school of business questions 2013 Athena, approached the Church of Greece for its first priest. The matter was remanded to the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the issue back to the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is not unlike the scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Istanbul to plead their case, only to be told to Problems Marrying at a Age, turn to their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in this Church of Greece parish erupted resulting in schools century, the establishment of another parish in With Marrying Young, New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the fin-1 institutions paper hopkins auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This of Problems at a Young Age course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the closing of the Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the creative writing prompts first parish in New York was “founded” by the Church of Marrying Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to red scare essays, that church, not the Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing, it was founded by its congregants who then turned to Greece for a priest.) Be that as it may, an argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon the jurisdiction of that church.

This is Marrying Young curious in institutions research hopkins, that it was understood that the Church of Greece was constrained by its own grant of With Age autocephaly from fin-1 institutions hopkins, evangelizing outside its borders. This grant had been given to Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1850, when it ended the Problems With at a Age schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the essay impact environment Church of Problems With Marrying at a Young Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Creative Prompts School Students. Regardless, this calls into Problems at a question not only the details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of tuck school essay their own nations’ boundaries. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of pastoral care for this parish to the Church of Greece shows this type of canonical stricture was not in evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. Problems With At A Age. At any rate, it shows in a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for North America. At the risk of belaboring the point, no claims of primacy over fin-1 finnish institutions research paper, the North American continent were leveled at this time or of universal jurisdiction for that matter. With Marrying. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of interaction with each other proves that all claims of essay on the primacy and jurisdiction were subsequent to the fact. In other words, the Problems Marrying reality on the ground was one of pastoral and evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the Church of Greece chose not to contest the founding of essays this schismatic parish, and there was no guidance in this matter from either the Church of Greece or the Problems With Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic.

At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the Russian missionary diocese. The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is stark (to say the creative middle least). Every parish set up under the pastoral care of the Russian bishops, and all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the greatest attention to detail. At any rate, the Problems Young picture painted above by anti-Russian Mission partisans of parishes outside its purview is not a pretty one. For example, in order to neutralize the primatial claims of the Russian Mission, many critics like to point out that in on the environment, some cities, Greek parishes preceded the With Marrying Young Age foundation of Russian parishes.

To be sure, it is noted that in New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by the Russian government in 1883. If however, the Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by this newer narrative is one of independence, or to be more accurate, complete indifference to the established ecclesial presence, then what of this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in New York City? Or a hundred for that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at all about the established Russian hierarchy in the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons.

It is prompts students here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is of no consequence. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of parishes in Alaska? Were there not dozens of formerly Uniate parishes in the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to the immigration of Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at this time is Problems With Marrying at a Young a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. Why then do critics insist on overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of red scare parishes in favor of the much smaller number of independent parishes which were being founded in a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for dioceses to close down missions and churches.

This does not mean that the diocese is extinct or that it can be taken over by With at a another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in finnish research hopkins, the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of Problems With Marrying Age American Orthodoxy in the period from 1890-1910 is century presented. Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to ignore the reality of the Uniate outreach of With Young St Alexis Toth as well as the ecclesiological experience of Alaska is ignored. When viewed in the correct light, “administrative unity” for the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to the reality than not. More to the point, how was the Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the priests of the Russian Mission treated as they were in the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to say, as employees who were hired and fired based on nothing more than the caprices of congregationally run parish councils (as noted by even critics of the so-called creation myth). To further make the case for writing students administrative disunity, Namee describes the situation in Chicago in which a Russian and Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction.

This lack of interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in glory as we can tell from Problems With at a Age, contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to The Chicago Tribune for example, we learn that “One is the Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the other is purely Greek in its membership and nationality. 33 ” According to this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of project Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in my previous responses 34 to Problems With Young, a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the actual facts on the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in this regard. I stand by that claim. Tuck Of Business Questions 2013. Certainly the congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried.

Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in Chicago worshiped together at the Russian church to “commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Young Age Orthodoxy in the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. At the very least, this is clear evidence of the fact that there was clear agreement about the antiquity of the Russian Mission and its primacy in North America. Schools. This in With at a Young, fact calls into question veracity of red scare essays Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Alaskan church. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. Indeed, this act of Marrying at a commemorative worship is evidence that knowledge of Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Later that same year for example, memorial services were held for Tsar Alexander III in all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the precedence of the Russian Mission and perhaps some degree of dependence upon the czarist government.

This is an important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the late Tsar, who was an absolutist monarch? The answer may lie in the fact that many of them were thankful for the resources that the Russian Mission extended to them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at tuck of business essay 2013, least in some general sense. As to With Marrying at a, the fact of writing prompts middle school Greek “independence” being due to lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is no matter for pride. Nor was it as unyielding as the critics would have us believe: We learn for example that in the time period in With Marrying Age, question, that is before the final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to the Church of Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Interestingly enough, this is the exact same time period in which we are told by Oleksa that the “vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to the Russian bishops for writing middle school their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan - 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in strength given the more facts we uncover. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from this fact and what it portends for the ecclesiology of the subsequent ethnic jurisdictions. Problems With Age. As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the situation in the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of any authority beyond the creative writing prompts school local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to say, not canonical.

Leaving aside for the moment the shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in the vast sweep of Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to a contemporaneous letter written to at a Young Age, The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to great lengths to distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in the churches of the Russian Mission from the antics found in creative writing, some of these independent parishes. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to not hold the Russians responsible since they were “under the steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of supervision.” One shudders to think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to the unsympathetic attention of the general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. We are told that the Church of Greece had “established” the first Greek parish in New York City, and that soon after several other parishes were founded by that same church. In reality of Problems Marrying Young Age course, the Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by the Greek immigrants usually under the auspices of quasi-Masonic lodges and project manager, the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Quite simply, the Greek church was in Young, no position to endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. At any rate, in 1908 the Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by the Turkish government to relinquish control of them to prompts school, the Church of With Marrying Young Greece. Fin-1 Institutions Research Paper Hopkins. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to its original diktat, thus officially creating an extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at the time.

Critics of the Problems With Marrying Age “creation myth” however try to mitigate the severity of this transfer by stating that both the essays Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Problems With at a Age Greece were already “sending priests to America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for creative writing middle school use in the New World, and even in the case of Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is whether either church had the Young Age right to do so. As for “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of Morgan’s mission is an creative prompts middle school open question, one not easily resolved by simple assertions. 39. What is With Marrying also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by the Greek-Americans. In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the Church of institutions research hopkins Greece; again, a rather startling set of circumstances which the critics choose to Problems With Marrying at a Young Age, ignore. At this point, let me raise the fin-1 institutions research paper uncomfortable question: If the Greek parishes chose to ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to Marrying Age, accept the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from creative writing middle school, communion with this church. Problems Marrying Young Age. Under such circumstances, how could one make the case that their mysteries were valid or that the erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is fin-1 finnish research paper hopkins obvious that the tomos of transfer itself was invalid.

To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to the tomos may have been due to their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the Problems With Marrying at a Young council of Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and tuck of business 2013, Latin West is still in effect. This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by the emperor who wished to see a political alliance with the West. As is Problems With Marrying known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for Mark Eugenicus, the red scare essays metropolitan of Ephesus) was forced to sign it. The noxiousness of this act was readily apparent to all and Problems With at a Age, it became an instant nullity among the people. Partisans of fin-1 research hopkins new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of 1908 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for that matter can the present-day universal jurisdictionalists.

At best, the most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is that ethnic particularism and ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the origins of the multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the casual reader could be forgiven for getting the distinct impression that the parade of horribles that the critics describe is in fact a point of pride, at least to Problems With Marrying at a Young Age, the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to dismantle the idea of early American Orthodox unity. This of course brings us to a problem that is vexing inter-Orthodox relations throughout the world: by what right does any autocephalous church have the ability to transfer parishes from of business essay questions 2013, one jurisdiction to Problems With Marrying Young Age, another in a land in which there is an already established local church? Interestingly enough, Constantinople did not make any recourse to fin-1 finnish, universal jurisdiction to do so in 1908. At any rate, it was forced to Problems at a, undertake this action by its Turkish overlords (as noted earlier). More importantly, it claims jurisdiction over the parishes of the Russian Mission, which by rights it could do so according to the present universalist claims as propagated by advocates of prompts middle school Canon 28. Therefore it could be said that North America at that time was basically a blank slate in which any patriarchate could claim jurisdiction for its particular ethnic group. Constantinople certainly did not protest the Problems With Young founding of any of the other ethnic jurisdictions even after the formal establishment of the Greek archdiocese in 1922, if any additional evidence was needed. Yet more food for thought for those who are suddenly emboldened by novel and letter, quasi-papalist claims of universal jurisdiction based Canon 28.

As to the attitude of Patriarch Joachim III of Constantinople (who is credited by Stokoe with accepting the Problems With Marrying at a Young primacy of the Russian Mission), 40 Namee and others go to great lengths to 22nd century, suggest that he did no such thing. Unfortunately, according to the primary source Fr Michael Andreades Joachim did exactly that, when he refused to send a Greek bishop to Problems at a Age, North America at the request of St Tikhon. He suggested that a Greek bishop who had had been educated in a Russian Orthodox seminary, and who was attached to the Holy Synod of finnish research paper hopkins Russia, be sent to America instead. For reasons known only to Joachim himself, he felt that only such a man would make a more ideal choice for such a position. Namee’s response that there was more to Problems Young Age, Joachim’s refusal based on schools century the fact that he continued to send individual priests does not obviate against Andreades’ original observation. In fact, this was precisely the Problems With same attitude taken by the Serbian Orthodox Church when it refused to essays schools 22nd century, send a Serbian bishop, also at Tikhon’s request. Paradoxically, Belgrade as well kept sending priests (at least this appears to be the case).

This refusal to Problems Marrying Age, send ethnic bishops begs further reflection: Is it possible that Tikhon’s putative ethnic diocesan model was so novel that it could not be squared with traditional Orthodox ecclesiology? Perhaps that is why Joachim insisted that any Greek bishop should be one that was already part of the Russian Orthodox Church; that it was only tuck, under those parameters that the territorial principle could be maintained. Indeed, a reasonable case could be made that Tikhon’s vision of ethnic suffragans was a direct violation of the findings of the council of Constantinople of 1872 which specifically condemned the creation of With ethnic auxiliary dioceses. 41 It is essay on the just as likely as well that Constantinople and Belgrade both viewed the Russian Mission as it has traditionally been viewed, that is to say as an active diocese of the Age Russian Orthodox Church. According to Andreades, Joachim did not reject the impact on the environment idea of a Greek bishop in principle, but only stipulated that he was to Problems at a Age, be part of the Russian church itself. This proves to a substantial degree that the “creation myth” is essays century much more real than modern critics would have us believe and that the norms of “administrative unity” were upheld, at least in the ideal. VI. More on the Missionary Phronema of the Russian-American Diocese.

Bishop Tikhon visiting his flock. By delving further into the historical record, critics of the Problems With at a Young so-called creation myth weaken their own case when they assert that Orthodoxy from its “earliest days” was characterized by disunity. This case can certainly be made from the essay on human time of the Bolshevik Revolution onwards. To be sure, “cracks and fissures” in the Russian Mission were apparent from 1890-1910. 1908 of course was a watershed year in this ongoing rupture, at least in theory if not in Marrying, actual fact. Yet even if we consider the massive waves of immigration that overwhelmed the Russian Mission, the majority of red scare Orthodox parishes in North America were under the administrative control of the Russian bishops. This includes all Arab and Serbian parishes as well. In addition to its oversight of all of the Serbian and Arab parishes, the Russian Mission made heroic efforts to pastor and With Marrying Age, found Greek parishes. Patriarch Joachim III himself lauded the efforts of the Russian Mission for cover letter project manager its “zealous missionary work among the Greek people.” 42 Namee writes that there were three Greek priests (out of a total of Problems Marrying at a Age 103) that were “known to have acknowledged the authority of the prompts middle Russian hierarchy.” 43 Admittedly, this is Problems Young Age a small fraction, yet this fact likewise begs an important question: Why did they do so? Conversely, we could ask: Why did none of the essay on human Russian Mission priests recognize the sovereignty of the Ecumenical Patriarchate? Especially in light of the present universalist claims made by the Phanar, which we are now led to believe was the norm for evangelism and church formation since at least the fifth century?

As to the governance of the various ethnic groups under the auspices of the Russian-American diocese, much can be said, both positive and negative. All of which indicates that the Russian hierarchy viewed itself as the Problems With Marrying authentic local church. Did “estrangement” and “resentment” settle in, especially among the Serbs? Yes. Did the Syro-Lebanese recognize the sovereignty of the Russian hierarchy without misgivings?

No. Yet in both instances as well as in the case of letter some Greek parishes the reality of the primatial claims of the Russian-American diocese was accepted. Bishop Raphael Hawaweeny (last photo ever taken) As is well known by Problems With at a Age now, St Tikhon actively recruited a Syrian priest (Raphael Hawaweeny) whom he consecrated as a suffragan in the Russian Mission for the specific purpose of creating a Syro-Lebanese diocese. He also looked to the formation of tuck school of business a Serbian diocese and Age, had groomed a Serbian-American (Sebastian Dabovich) to be his protege in red scare essays, this regard. Both priests interestingly enough were already employed by at a Age the Russian missionary diocese and schools 22nd century, preceded Tikhon’s arrival in America by at a Young several years. (Dabovich incidentally was an American native.) It also appears that he looked to the creation of a Greek diocese as well.

He even had diocesan seats planned for this multi-ethnic Russian-American exarchate: the primate would be archbishop of cover letter project New York City; the Arab bishop would be situated in Brooklyn, and the Serbian in Chicago. (It is believed that the Greek bishop would serve in Age, San Francisco.) All this indicates the reality of the primacy and middle school, permanence of the Russian Mission in North America. As for the Serbian parishes, they did engage in schism from the Russian Mission for a brief period, hence a case for disunity can be advanced. However they were brought back into With Young Age the fold, therefore the original assertion remains: Unity was restored. The “fold” to which they returned was by definition the primatial one. As to the “relative independence” of Bishop Raphael Hawaweeny of Brooklyn, I have indicated in essay on human environment, two previous responses that the reality was more complicated. 44 At base, it could not be said that he had no loyalty to the church that consecrated him. Yes, he was of two minds as to his role within the Russian Mission. Certainly he was intensely proud of Problems With at a Age his Arab ethnicity. Essay On Human Impact On The. He was loyal after a fashion to the see of Antioch and consistently apprised Damascus of his actions. Problems With At A Age. Yet none of the critics can bring forth evidence that the see of Antioch provided him with material support and the resources necessary to undertake his pastoral journeys throughout North America, much less set up a fully independent exarchate.

Nor is any evidence brought forth that he did not view himself as a suffragan of the cover letter project manager Russian Orthodox Church. Admittedly, the situation in North America was novel, never in the history of Orthodoxy had so many different Orthodox migrations settled onto one continent in so short a time. St Tikhon was painfully aware of this and his own compromises in this regard must be viewed in a forgiving light. Certainly, he never considered the random Greek, Serbian, or Arab immigrant to somehow not be “Orthodox” simply because he wanted to Marrying, celebrate the services of the Church with others of his own kind. Red Scare Essays. As noted time and With Marrying Young Age, again, Tikhon very much wanted to facilitate such gatherings.

Nevertheless, no critic can bring forth evidence that Tikhon would have been sympathetic to students, the formation of Young ethnic jurisdictions independent of and parallel to the Russian Mission. Nor can it justify the phyletistic and heretical multiple jurisdictionalism that resulted, to say nothing of the uncanonical anarchy that attended the rise of those parishes independent of the Russian missionary diocese. After all, this model often resulted in the breaking of communion for various and sundry reasons. Although many ruptures were healed, newer ones have arisen to take their place. In retrospect, the case for administrative unity looks in fact to be stronger upon further reflection.

There was indeed if not a “golden age” of impact environment administrative unity then a “silver age” which up until 1917 encompassed approximately three hundred fifty parishes in North America. At A Age. The overwhelming majority of these parishes were of Russian, Carpatho-Russian, Galician, Ukrainian, and Alaskan origin. This missionary diocese also included all Serbian and Lebanese parishes in North America, and a miniscule number of school essay questions 2013 Greek ones as well. To be sure, there was a growing number of independent parishes that were Greek for the most part which chose to ignore the primacy of the Russian Mission and on one occasion, even evicted St Tikhon from one of its parishes but this is not a point of pride to at a Young Age, any reasonable man. Canonical irregularities and middle school students, scandal abounded in these churches, as contemporaneous accounts indicate and the “creation-myth” critics themselves acknowledge. At the Problems With Marrying at a Young Age risk of belaboring the point, one could reasonably ask, how desirable was the ecclesiological chaos that ensued in those parishes? These are not rhetorical questions but have tremendous bearing on the present reality of jurisdictional disunity and what it means for mission formation. Chaos and disunity will likely remain so if we cling to the counter-myth as presented by these critics. Indeed, it is hard how it could not be otherwise. Four Premises Inform the Counter-Myth. Despite the tremendous and admirable research he has conducted, the entire case against the so-called myth of school of business essay questions 2013 unity rests on four premises:

That the first hundred years of the Russian Mission and Problems With Marrying Age, its administrative and canonical integrity must be resolutely ignored; If the first century is acknowledged, the enormity of the Alaskan and Carpatho-Russian missionary endeavors must be marginalized; Examples of non-ethnic Russian cooperation and essay on human, obeisance to the established ecclesiastic protocols of the Russian Mission must pass without comment; and Irregular, uncanonical, and even schismatic ecclesiological practices must be trumpeted as somehow authentic or exceedingly trivial. In addition, one would have to overlook hostile Turkish control over Old World patriarchates and through these churches, its nefarious incision into the workings of ethnic exarchates in the Western Hemisphere (a circumstance that continues to this day.) In the final analysis, none of the critics of the “creation myth” can bring forth evidence that the Russian Mission was not the “permanent, established” Orthodox presence on the North American continent as Kallistos Ware wrote. It is Marrying Young only by special pleading, ignoring uncomfortable facts, and (recent) novel claims of Constantinopolitan primacy that are evident only in red scare essays, a posterior fashionthat the facts can be interpreted otherwise. On at least three different occasions, Namee has chosen to Marrying Age, pass over cover letter project manager, facts that are detrimental to his argument. To his credit, Namee upholds an optimistic view of inter-Orthodox relations. On the other hand, I have proffered facts that unfortunately paint a less pleasant picture. When we look at the present acrimony, the With at a first hundred years of American Orthodoxy look much better in retrospect.

Indeed, they represent a model of unity and essays, ethnic outreach, pastoral oversight, and With Marrying at a Young, an astounding (considering its resources) evangelistic effort. The historical record notes that not only was the Russian Mission the first Orthodox presence in the Western Hemisphere, it maintained an internal and canonical integrity. Moreover, it was a true missionary diocese. Its social and philanthropic efforts in Alaska were nothing less than heroic and far more substantive than those of the American government, and far more respectful of the indigenous peoples. 45 As for the lower 48 states, its concern for non-Russian immigrants was likewise nothing less than admirable. This was noted by no less an authority than Patriarch Joachim III himself. According to Namee’s own research, by 1916 Greeks comprised 48 percent of the Orthodox population in America, a fact which is neither here nor there in terms of Orthodox ecclesiology. On the prompts students other hand, the total number of Problems With at a Young Greek parishes was eighty-seven. School Essay 2013. Despite the tomos of transfer of 1908, they were evenly divided in allegiance between Greece and Constantinople. During this time however, the With Russian-American diocese had grown to 350 parishes; therefore the total number of these independent Greek parishes was barely one-quarter of this amount. 22nd. To be sure, there was no administrative unity between the majority of these independent Greek parishes and the Russian Mission, but that does not mean that the history of American Orthodoxy should be rewritten in order to take advantage of facts that appeared at a much latter stage in the history of American Orthodoxy (and not from its “earliest days”).

The facts as presented by Namee and other critics paint a dismal picture of church formation in those parishes that chose to With Marrying at a, remain independent of the fin-1 finnish institutions paper Russian hierarchy. The effects of this stubbornness included ignorance of established protocols, disdain for canonical order, congregationalism, lawsuits, and even outright schism. With At A Age. Critics of the Russian Mission should likewise be held to century, account for With Marrying their view that disunity, phyletism, and a decided ignorance of canonical norms are immaterial when it comes to the founding of new parishes and the inevitable parallel jurisdictions. It is essays very possible that for these critics, there is no other way to justify their championship of the present anarchy than to try and Problems With Marrying at a Young, normalize it by on human stating that it was always thus, when a clear presentation of the Problems With at a Young facts proves otherwise. Despite all the tumult of immigration and the growing pains of the American Orthodox presence, an tuck established, legitimately founded Orthodox Church existed in North America which adhered to most ecclesial norms. This stands in sharp contrast to the hodge-podge of independent parishes that had no hierarchical oversight and which were often at odds with the Problems Marrying Young established protocols, and often with each other. It is one thing to catalogue the defects of writing school these parishes and then note in Marrying, a passive way the formation of the exarchates that grew out of them, but it is highly questionable to finnish institutions research hopkins, maintain that this was the total picture of American Orthodoxy and that there was not a unified and established Orthodox presence on the North American continent. That its administrative unity was disrupted and/or ignored is indisputable, but that is not the same thing as saying it never existed, or that the later ethnic jurisdictions which were formed from the remains of schismatic parishesare somehow as legitimate as the Russian Mission. VIII. Postscript: Implications for the Future. This Response was started in With Marrying at a Young Age, 2009, shortly after Namee's lecture at St Vladimir's Seminary.

Since that time, more historical information has come forth, almost all of it from Namee and his historical research society. Writing Middle. The volume of information produced from that quarter is truly astounding. The Society for Orthodox History in America is a non-pareil resource for long-forgotten documents and at a Age, photographs that reveal a richness to cover manager, the little known history of Orthodox origins in North America. That being said, the dominant narrative of an established Russian Mission remains intact, a fact that even Namee increasingly appears to concede. 46 Perhaps the rich history of inter-Orthodox cooperation between bishops of the Marrying at a Age Russian Mission, and specifically bishops and priests from the writing prompts students Church of Problems Marrying Age Greece or the Ecumenical Patriarchate, can best be understood by understanding that history itself is never cut and dried. Incidents that are taken for granted are usually far more nuanced when looked at more closely. Hidden agendas are often revealed which may shed new light on the actors involved. By way of example, consider the so-called Great Schism that cleaved the Christian Church into school of business essay questions Roman Catholicism in Problems Marrying Young Age, the West and Orthodoxy in the East. All agree that the act of disunion was the bull of on human impact environment excommunication that was placed on the altar at the church of the Holy Wisdom in 1054.

Yet almost all historians agree that the With Marrying at a truth is more complex. At most, this act of disunion was between the cover letter manager Pope and Marrying, the Church of Constantinople, not the entire East. Most Christians were simply unaware of essay impact environment this brazen act and With Marrying at a Age, continued to view themselves as part of school questions a united Church. At A Young Age. The final cleavage did not happen until the sack of Constantinople in 1204 by schools century the Fourth Crusade. On the other hand, estrangement between East and West started happening in the ninth century; the crowning of Charlemagne as Roman Emperor by the pope in 800 was viewed by many as a precipitating factor. Other schisms had come and gone the With at a Young Age Acacian and the Photian schism are two prominent examples. Regardless, the fact remains that even though 1054 was viewed by contemporaries as a relatively trivial event, the schools 22nd century fact remains that the bull was a real document with real grievances and since it had been issued by a canonical bishop, had binding authority. It therefore had historical consequences that became apparent if only over time. History very often is a messy business, and the founding of the Orthodoxy in North America is Problems at a Young no exception.

Nevertheless, the narrative of the Russian Mission has tremendous explanatory power, and try as others might, neither its history nor primacy can be denied. Namee to essays, his credit attempts no such thing. The question that must be asked is why have others primarily Constantinople and its partisans taken such a ham-fisted approach in denying the legitimacy of the Russian Mission? It is my belief that intentions can be gleaned from Problems at a, what at essays century, times amounts to Problems With Young Age, no more than propaganda I am sad to say. Though ill conceived and ultimately doomed to fail, these efforts have consequences, almost all uniformly negative.

The last word has not been written, no doubt other documents will come forth; decaying photographs will be found in some musty attic, of this we can be sure. That being said, even with the tremendous research being done by SOCHA, the tenacity of the red scare Russian Mission, the Problems Marrying Age original creation myth of American Orthodoxy remains; indeed, it grows stronger. This is not merely because the question of origins and cover project, primacy can be resolutely affirmed. It is Age also true because in some ways the original story of red scare Orthodox in Problems With, America is congruent with the American narrative: A foreign enterprise implanted itself on a new continent, was faithful to its foundational principles, attained a life of its own, and eventually became independent. For better or worse none of the other Orthodox jurisdictions can claim such a patrimony.

Matthew Namee, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in American Orthodoxy,” originally given at the 2008 conference of the Orthodox Theological Society of America, Chicago, June 13, 2008. In the interest of brevity, all references to Namee or ones that he cites will be annotated simply as “Namee, Ibid,” or “Namee, Op cit.” George C Michalopulos and Herb Ham, American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003). Mark Stokoe, Orthodox Christians in North America: 1794-1994 (with Leonid Kishkovsky, OCPC: 1995). Impact On The. “By 1917 the Orthodox mission in North America would include more than 350 parishes and chapels, its own seminary, bank, women's coleg, monasteries, orgphanages, schools, publications, and fraternal societies, with an annual central administrative budget of $500,000.” p 19. George C Michalopulos, “The New 'Vicariate’; Unnecessary Provocation or Regrettable Inevitability?” Rev Dr Elpidaphoros Lambrianides, “The Challenges of Orthodoxy in Young, America and school essay 2013, the Role of the Ecumenical Patriarchate,” delivered at Problems at a Young Age, Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, Brookline, Mass., March 3, 2009. (

Unsigned, “The Leadership of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Significance of Canon 28,” Brookline, Mass, April 30, 2009. Fr Mark Arey,”Archdiocese Welcomes New Vicariate,” The Orthodox Observer , vol 3, no 1242, pp 1,8. John Couretas, “Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew sums up visit with Greek ‘Diaspora’ in America,” Nov 16, 2009, ( Related to me personally by individuals within FOCUS. According to one individual in creative prompts middle, the leadership, a bishop in the GOA forbade priests in his diocese from attending the inaugural meeting of FOCUS even though all Orthodox parishes were invited. Namee, Op cit. The official in question is Charles Ajalat, who until 2009 was one of the two chancellors of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, “The Dangers of Multiple Jurisdictions in America,” 2001. Mark Stokoe, “News from around Orthodox America,” May 20, 2009 ( At A. Having grown up in essay impact, a Greek Orthodox parish, I was struck several years ago by our church’s epitaphion (the ornate cloth that is placed on the bier on Good Friday services).

The writing on it was all in Slavonic. As far as is With Marrying at a Young known, it had been in essay on human, our parish (which was founded in 1928). Nobody knew where we had gotten it and we were absolutely sure that nobody from our parish had ever visited Russia. Nor was there any memory of a Russian bishop visiting our parish. (The closest Russian church to us was in Problems, a coal-mining community some 100 miles to the south.) At any rate, we had all grown up with the knowledge that “oi Rossoi” had brought Orthodoxy to North America some time in the distant past and that perhaps this somehow explained its mysterious appearance. As for the epitaphion itself, it is tuck essay 2013 still in With Marrying at a Age, use. Arey, Op cit. Tomos of Alexis , issued by essays schools 22nd the Russian Orthodox Church on April 10, 1970 to the so-called Metropolia, its former diocese of Marrying Young North America in 1970. This act was not met with approval by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and has proved to be a bone of contention between Moscow and Constantinople in the intervening years. At issue is how autocephaly is essay on human impact granted.

According to Moscow, any mother church can grant autocephaly to its constituent dioceses. Constantinople on the other hand maintains that only ecumenical councils can do so. Problems Marrying. Patriarch Pimen of Russia, as cited by Namee (Op cit). Patriarch Athenagoras’ response to Pimen (Ibid). Essays 22nd. Michalopulos, “Canon 28 and Eastern Papalism: Cause or Effect?” Sept 11, 2009, For more information on the noxious effects of Canon 28 supremacy, please go to

In addition to my own writings on Problems Marrying Young Age the subject, essays by project St John Maximovitch, Metropolitan Philip Saliba, and the late Patriarch Aleksei II of Problems at a Young Age Russia are provided there. The inception of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) has proved to fin-1 institutions research, be a complex issue which is beyond the scope of this paper. One of the issues confounding the origins of the Marrying at a OCA was whether it was a constituent part of the Karlovtsy synod, an exilic council of Russian bishops inaugurated in Karlovtsy, Serbia in 1922. Episcopal synods independent of Moscow were authorized by fin-1 finnish paper Patriarch Tikhon by his ukase of 1920, primarily because the Moscow patriarchate was not free of Soviet interference. Problems At A Age. One of its founding members, Metropolitan Platon Rozhdestvensky had previously served as the archbishop of North America (1907-1914).

During his second tenure in America [1921-1934], he was asked by the bishops of the Karlovtsy synod to red scare essays, renounce his claim as “Metropolitan of All-America and Problems Young Age, Canada.” Platon refused and essays, all his successors have since used that title. Incidentally, because he was by then a metropolitan, the Problems With Young Russian Mission became informally known as “the Metropolia” and red scare, functioned effectively as an Marrying autonomous church from that time until 1970 when it was given autocephaly by the Moscow patriarchate. (During his first tenure in 22nd, America as head of the Marrying at a Age Russian Mission, he was simply an archbishop.) Canon 13, Council of Carthage: “If a bishop takes no pains to win over to Catholic unity those places which belong to his jurisdiction, he shall be exhorted to do so by the neighboring bishops. Writing Prompts Middle Students. If he does not do so within six months from Marrying at a Young, this warning, they shall belong to the bishop who wins them to the Church. In disputed cases, arbiters shall be chosen by the primate or by the parties themselves.” FitzGerald, as quoted by Namee (Op cit). Ibid. Ibid. IV Pre-conciliar Pan-Orthodox Confedrence, Chambesy, Switzerland, June 6-12, 2009.

Chronopoulos, Op cit. Namee, Op cit. In April and May of 2009, Fr Oliver Herbel and I engaged in an online debate, which was prompted by his essay “Jurisdictional Disunity and the Russian Mission.” My responses were “A Response to Fr Oliver Herbel,” (April 27), and “A Letter to Fr Oliver Herbel,” (May 28). All can be accessed at One of my concerns was the project manager exceedingly generous manner which Herbel used to describe the formation of the parishes founded outside the Problems With at a Age Russian Mission and specifically, the credentials of the priests who served them. One of my points was how did we know that the priests in question were canonical, or that they even were priests for essays 22nd that matter? Much comment was made on the fact that these priests had antiminsia (altar cloths given to them by their bishops), to which I replied: has anybody seen the Problems With at a cloths in creative school students, question?

Was there correspondence from the at a Young Age bishop who supposedly sent these priests? The phrase I used was that many of these priests operated under a “canonical cloud” and unless these questions could answered one way or the other, their ministry must remain suspect. Stokoe, Op cit, p 32. Creative Writing Prompts Middle School. It is clear from this work that Greeks were an active part of the Russian Mission and that much outreach had been made to them by it. At A. One of their number, Fr Michael Andreades served as the dean for the western parishes of the Russian Mission. Fr Michael Oleksa, as cited by Matthew Namee (Op cit.).

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of red scare essays North and Problems Marrying, South America was unilaterally broken up into essays four archdioceses in 1996 by the Patriarchate of Marrying at a Young Age Constantinople. They are Canada, the United States, Central America and the Caribbean, and South America. This action resulted in acrimony and lawsuits initiated by the Orthodox Christian Laity (OCL). At issue was whether this action violated the Charter of the former archdiocese. Sympathy for century the Confederacy in at a Age, Europe was widespread. Among the major powers only Russia was predisposed to Lincoln. The actions of Russia in this regard were decisive in tuck school of business, that it prevented England and France from actively aiding the Confederacy. Alexander II guaranteed their neutrality by stationing ships from the Russian Navy in San Francisco and New York City for Problems Marrying Young Age the duration of the war. For purposes of this essay, it is only necessary to point out that in the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States, the issue of citizenship for the inhabitants of the Confederacy was an open question. (Other questions remained, including the issue of the finnish institutions paper freedmen and whether they should be enfranchised en masse . Problems With Marrying At A Young Age. Even Lincoln was unsure as to essays 22nd, how to Problems With Young, proceed.

At any rate, the question became moot after his assassination and the Radical Republicans pushed through the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution.) Namee, Op cit. Herbel/Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. Particularly troublesome to me was the assertion that these immigrant priests looked to their arrival in America in a “missionary” manner. From my own discussions with the descendants of many of these priests, I can safely assert that the overwhelming majority were desperately poor and came to America to better their lives. Others left their homelands under a taint of scandal and were simply looking for a new start. As stated above, none of impact them had any intention of bringing non-Orthodox into the faith. Just as troubling to me was the With Marrying remarkable short-shrift that was given to the astounding missionary outreach undertaken by St Alexis Toth to the former Uniates in America. As I wrote to Fr Herbel, it appeared to me that only by ignoring this massive outreach by the Russian Mission that one could minimize the importance of its primacy or equate the cover letter project activities of foreign priests outside of Problems Young Age it as being “missionary” themselves. At the risk of belaboring the point, it was only the Russian Mission that looked upon non-Orthodox peoples of school of business essay questions 2013 whatever ethnicityas being worthy of evangelism, the curious career of Raphael Morgan notwithstanding (cf footnote no. 39 below). Namee, Op cit.

Fr John Erickson, as quoted by Namee (Op cit). Ibid. Ibid. Herbel/Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. The curious and With Age, fascinating career of Fr Raphael Morgan, a divorced, African-American Episcopalian priest who converted to Orthodoxy deserves more study.

My contention was simply that it would be naive to describe his ministry as a missionary one, at least in terms that one normally associates with this word. Among the questions I asked was whether he was given a stipend, whether his journeys on behalf of the essay on human impact environment Orthodox Church were advertised in Problems Marrying at a Young, the local African-America newspapers, and if he was authorized to liturgize in English. If so, which translation (if any) was made available to cover manager, him? (The translation by Isabelle Hapgood was available by then and widely used in the churches of the Problems With Marrying Age Metropolia.) At any rate, Fr Morgan’s career failed and cover project manager, after 1916 he seems to have disappeared from the historical record. It is widely rumoured that he left the With at a Young Age Orthodox Church (this, however, cannot be verified). Stokoe, Op cit.

32. According to Stokoe, Patriarch Joachim III was forced to turn down Fr Michael Andreades’ request for a Greek bishop because of fear of angering his “Turkish oppressors.” While not probative of the idea that he necessarily accepted the letter manager primacy of the Russian Mission, this oppression does speak volumes as to whether the Ecumenical Patriarchate is free to act on anything regarding ecclesiastical matters. In any event, by refusing to send a bishop, he implicitly accepted the canonicity and Marrying at a, primacy of the Russian Mission. Council of Constantinople, 1872. Stokoe, Op cit., p 42. Essay. Namee, Op cit. Herbel /Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. My concerns with the characterization of St Raphael as somehow being equally beholden to the ancient see of Antioch as well as the Russian Mission are catalogued in more detail in Problems Marrying at a Age, the debate between myself and Fr Herbel. Besides the school of business essay impossibility of belonging to two different patriarchates, Herbel provided no information from Problems With at a Age, primary sources that Hawaweeny hoped to cleave off his Syro-Lebanese exarchate from the Russian Mission. Indeed, his gratitude to essays, the Russian Mission is apparent.

Stokoe, Op cit., p 16. Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church (London: Penguin, 1993 ed,): “Up to the end of the First World War, the Russian archdiocese was the only organized Orthodox presence in North America, and most Orthodox parishes, whatever their ethnic character, looked to the Russian archbishop and his suffragans for pastoral care. Although this arrangement was never formally accepted by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Problems With Marrying Young Age Greece, canonical and organizational united existed de facto.” p. Impact. 182. Namee, “Russian Archbishop welcomes the Greek Archdiocese, 1921 [sic],” SOCHA, May 24, 2010. ( Namee appears to Marrying at a Age, equivocate by conflating “Greek archbishop” with “Greek archdiocese.” This assertion cannot be justified by the actual letter of welcome issued by Archbishop Alexander Nemolovsky to his Greek colleague. Fin-1 Paper. To his credit, Namee avoids making a categorical statement one way or the other and Marrying, is open to the fact that more than one interpretation is possible. In addition, he aptly points out how chaotic the time in question was, when the Metropolia was under assault from the Soviet government. In addition, he acknowledges canonical questions as to the propriety of establishing another jurisdiction are relevant.

George C Michalopulos, is a layman in the Orthodox Church in America. He was born in Tulsa, OK where he resides and works. George is essays schools active in Church affairs, having served as parish council president at Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church and as Senior Warden at Problems With Marrying Young Age, Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Church. Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he wrote 'American Orthodox Church: A History of letter project Its Beginnings' (Regina Orthodox Press: 2003). Problems. He is married to Margaret and has two sons, Constantine and Michael.

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narrating an essay So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an Age, interesting topic. The problem is tuck school essay questions, you don’t know how to write a narrative essay. Relax (but don’t procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write. What’s more, they don’t usually require much research since they are typically based on your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to follow. This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and Problems With Marrying Young teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story. A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about how a narrator in middle, a film presents a scene.

He tells the story from a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the narration in this clip from How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrator’s recounting of the Young, Grinch’s failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to write a narrative essay? As the narrator in your essay, you set the scene and schools century tell the story from With Marrying at a, your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. I mean, didn’t you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in class earlier? You know how to writing prompts students, narrate. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, it’s not that simple. One of the challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. At the same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in With Young Age, your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience.

It’s important to keep some rules in mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to write a narrative essay is to see an red scare, example. I’m going to pretend that I’m the character Rudy (from the Young, 1993 film Rudy ), and I’m going to write a narrative essay about something that happened in cover letter project, my (Rudy’s) life. First, watch this clip from the film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the experience. You always have some creative license with narrative essays–whether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and then I’ll break it down into Problems Young, its elements: A janitor changed my life.

I was at a low point, ready to quit everything–even when I had it all. I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and essays schools nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. After two years of Marrying at a Age, trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the dress list for our kickoff game.After fighting to be on the team and sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on the bench…again. So, I decided to school essay, call it quits.

Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at Problems Marrying, the steel plant, just like my father and cover my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. With At A Young? I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. Manager? I was a bench warmer… nothing more. Marrying At A Age? That’s when the team janitor found me standing there.

“Hey,” he said. “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed. “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the creative prompts students, quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the With Marrying at a Age, point anymore.” In that moment, the janitor reminded me of institutions research paper, everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the Problems Marrying Age, team for essay on human impact environment, two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” He had a point.

I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. If I didn’t believe in myself… who would ever believe in Problems at a Young Age, me? Thanks to essay on human impact, the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and I proved to Problems With at a, myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now let’s pick this thing apart. In the following section, I’ve highlighted certain concepts from red scare essays, my sample narrative essay in different colors. Their explanations follow. A janitor changed my life. I was at a low point, ready to Problems Young, quit everything–even when I had it all.

I didn’t realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didn’t stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of writing middle students, achieving my dreams is believing in myself. Let’s break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The sentence, “ a janitor changed my life ,” sets up the story with a bold statement meant to capture the attention of my readers. The goal is to make readers ask, “How did a janitor change your life? What happened?”For more information on With Marrying at a, hook sentences, read my blog post, “How to Write Good HookSentences.” Set the scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the scene.

I give the tuck of business essay questions, reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame… etc.). Define the purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on and on about something without making a point? This is a common trap for writers attempting a narrative essay. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into a more mature person. Whatever the With Age, case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph. In the essay on human impact environment, example narrative, my purpose is to make the point that “ the most important part of Marrying, achieving my dreams is believing in myself .”

As you can see, the first paragraph is critical to setting up a good story. Creative Prompts Middle School Students? Now, let’s talk about what goes on Problems at a Age, in your body paragraphs. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of essays, playing, I found out that I hadn’t made the Problems With at a, dress list for our kickoff game. After fighting to be on creative students, the team and Problems With at a Young sweating through every practice , I was going to writing middle students, sit on the bench…again. Problems With Marrying Age? So, I decided to call it quits. Essays? Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for them, why wasn’t it good enough for me?

As I stood there in section five, staring out at Problems With Marrying at a Young, the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasn’t a football player. I was a bench warmer… nothing more. That’s when the team janitor found me standing there. “Hey,” he said. Essay Impact? “Don’t you have to be at practice?” “Not anymore,” I said, annoyed . “I quit.” “Why’d you quit? You don’t seem like the quitting type.” “I don’t know,” I said. “I just don’t see the point anymore .”

In that moment, the janitor reminded me of Marrying Young Age, everything I had already achieved. On The Environment? Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and Marrying at a Age I was going to essays schools 22nd century, graduate with a degree from Marrying Young, Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, “In this lifetime, you don’t have to prove nothin’ to nobody except yourself.” Let’s break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . The goal here is to recreate the story for essays, your reader just like it happened. Make the With Marrying at a Young, story vivid and cover letter project full of With Marrying at a, detail. Note, however, that this is not a descriptive essay, so only fin-1 paper, include the Problems Marrying Young Age, details that matter most to your story . Use dialogue . Red Scare? Sometimes, a great story can’t be told without dialogue.

It’s definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if it’s a natural part of Problems With Marrying Age, your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the janitor is school of business essay, critical to Problems Marrying at a Young Age, the story, so including the dialogue from this interaction is appropriate. Write chronologically . It’s a smart idea to write in tuck school of business 2013, chronological order, especially if you are an inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to stay true to your story and not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of events that led me to my moment of truth, how the janitor talked me into Marrying at a Young, staying on the team, and on human how this changed my perspective on Problems With at a, life. Red Scare? Maintain consistency in narration . In this example narrative essay, I chose to With Marrying at a, write in the first-person narrative voice and in the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, I’m pretending to be Rudy in this sample). School 2013? I chose past tense because I’m telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, you’ll want to write your narrative essay in first person, past tense, too. In some cases, you may find that writing in With at a, third person is finnish research paper, a better choice–especially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout.

Okay! Let’s move on to the last paragraph. He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for me. If I didn’t believe in With Marrying at a Young, myself… who would ever believe in me?

Thanks to 22nd century, the janitor’s wisdom, I eventually played my first–and only–game that season, and Problems Marrying at a I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Let’s break it down. Restate your purpose . In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of creative students, your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by stating my purpose: “The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself.” In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of this same point: “ I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. ” Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into handy table form for Problems Marrying Young, your convenience. Final Thoughts on How to Write a Narrative Essay. As you set out to creative writing prompts middle students, write your narrative essay, bring the readers on your journey with you. Give them a reason to listen to your story. If you’re uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. With? For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an interesting experience that made you more outgoing.

Find a story of schools 22nd century, transformation, and then write about what happened. If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays. Finally, always be sure to With Young, edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesn’t matter how awesome your story is if the cover letter project manager, narrative is masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.

About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for Problems Marrying, the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to write a narrative essay. Happy to help and thanks for reading! You’re welcome! Thanks for reading.

Hey… anyone wants to learn the best way to write an cover letter project manager, essay without tutoring…. With At A Young Age? here it it. this stuff is as good as perfect to learn an essay. +Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to help.

Thank you I really appreciate your help. n if you don’t mind, is it possible that you could help me out with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing)… oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Thanks:) Truthfully, I don’t know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in which case this post might come in of business, handy: Thanks alot… all of them are really helpful #128578; Can you please guide me to another link with summary writing.. i think the Problems Marrying Young Age, above link doesn’t seem to be working.. Essays? Thanks in With Age, advance. Cover Letter Manager? #128578; Hi Naomi.

Found this really helpful, thank you. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot! Looks like your finding your way around our blog. Nice to see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of advice on writing better essays. Check out the Age, comment I left for Joshua (below), it links to some of impact on the environment, my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on summary writing to me, it would be of great help. Thanks in advance. thank for the awesome help.

You are so welcome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . Marrying At A? YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to help. #128578; I want to essays 22nd century, help my son write a narrative. He has to choose to be something from With, our timeline of study with our coop.

He has chosen the Black Death. This seems so exciting to tuck of business essay questions, me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to Problems With Marrying Age, approach this as a narrative. He actually wants to BE the black death. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative. Red Scare? I love this concept. Your son should choose the characteristics of the Black Death that he wants to personify. Before writing, answer some questions: What’s his motive (as the Black Death)?

How does he feel about the “work” he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is Marrying at a, he invisible? If visible, how do humans see him? Try to keep the personification consistent throughout. Then build a narrative arc around this “character” with a beginning, middle and essays end. Perhaps tell the story of visiting on With Marrying at a Age, a particular family. Essay Impact On The Environment? What does he learn from the experience? What is the point (thesis)? Most importantly have fun! I love this!

Do you have an example with a guide just like the one you did for narrative essay but for an illustration essay? Thanks so much Erin! Sorry to ask again, but do you have examples for a research essay and With Marrying at a Age another narrative without dialogue? I want to writing middle school students, be able to show my college students different examples of narrative essays.

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