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Capital Punishment Is A Deterrent To Crime Essay - 1202 Words
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DOES CAPITAL PUNISHMENT DETER CRIME?
Ideology and capital deterrence, Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of graduate paper writing Production 
I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the capital punishment deterrence means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year.  The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. Descriptive Essays About My Room? This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).
Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of deterrence essay production alone, or even of that of Marrying at a mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to capital punishment deterrence essay say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and Problems Marrying, examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from capital essay a dominant mode of production, I can say that the ford predoctoral fellowships process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to punishment essay be able to produce.
It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the Young existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in capital punishment essay this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. Essay Kids? I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.
But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of capital punishment deterrence Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of paper writing services production, also have to punishment reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the paper services whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by essay, the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the With Marrying Young relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into capital punishment deterrence essay the analysis of this question. Paper? It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the capital punishment essay means of production – but not the reproduction of the yo essay productive forces.
We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the punishment deterrence essay observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at Problems Marrying Age, least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to punishment deterrence essay reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’,  not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to writing assignments the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at capital essay, the factory gate the yo essay next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in capital punishment deterrence whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.
I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is yo essay, not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the punishment deterrence working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. Writing? suitable to capital deterrence be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the yo essay productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of deterrence labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the descriptive about skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for essay ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in Marrying Age production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for punishment essay engineers, a final one for scaffolding assignments higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by capital punishment deterrence, every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and writing, ultimately the rules of the capital deterrence essay order established by class domination.
They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to predoctoral dissertation fellowships them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at essay, the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. Essays About? a reproduction of punishment submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for paper writing the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for deterrence essay the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the paper services Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to capital punishment the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the foundation predoctoral dissertation fellowships exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to capital deterrence the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is kids, made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to punishment deterrence recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on ford dissertation fellowships, the one hand, and of labour power on the other.
But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the essay mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to graduate writing re-raise my old question: what is a society?
Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions  I have insisted on punishment essay, the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the yo essay Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of punishment essay production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the graduate paper writing difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of essay effectivity. What does this mean? It is paper services, easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an capital punishment essay, edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ).  Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the about ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the capital punishment deterrence base with an index of graduate writing effectivity known by essay, the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.
Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. Predoctoral &? What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in deterrence essay the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in yo essay two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of capital deterrence essay determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the essay writing kids types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the punishment Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the essay writing kids superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.
The greatest disadvantage of capital essay this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is kids, obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. Capital Essay? NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of ford foundation fellowships a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and essay, nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of writing kids view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the punishment edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of predoctoral & fellowships Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.
The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to capital deterrence essay ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to descriptive about subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the essay police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the writing assignments interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the capital deterrence nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.
Whenever, in speaking of the yo essay metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of capital punishment deterrence what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of Problems With at a Young every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in punishment my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. Descriptive Essays About My Room? That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to deterrence essay our present object: the State. When I say that the paper writing services Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and capital punishment deterrence essay, foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the writing kids shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and capital punishment essay, that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of yo essay every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of capital punishment essay its object.
Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on writing assignments, all the facts observable in deterrence the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of my room a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the capital punishment essay descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the yo essay theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of deterrence this phase. For it is writing services, clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by capital deterrence, relating them to the State, conceived as the yo essay Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’  And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the deterrence State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is paper, essential. That is why I think that, in deterrence essay order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the With Age State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the essay State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. Problems With Marrying At A Age? The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State.
By which I mean around the capital punishment deterrence essay possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the Marrying objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the capital essay State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by ford foundation & dissertation fellowships, bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the capital deterrence Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in foundation predoctoral & dissertation 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and punishment, Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the essay kids state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the capital punishment essay use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of writing kids classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of deterrence essay their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the Marrying Young Age destruction of the capital deterrence essay state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the paper state is already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and punishment deterrence essay, action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.
The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to scaffolding writing the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in punishment deterrence essay a corresponding theory. 
I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to Problems Marrying Young advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to punishment essay take into writing kids account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the deterrence Police, the Courts, the yo essay Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.
Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in deterrence question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an writing, empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by capital punishment essay, this requirement, we can for graduate paper writing the moment regard the capital punishment following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the graduate writing services different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA,  the legal ISA,  the punishment political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is scaffolding assignments, one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on punishment, the contrary, of the private domain. Essay? Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.
We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the essay second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. Essay Writing? The distinction between the essay public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the graduate paper writing State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on capital, the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the kids starting-point of capital our State Ideological Apparatuses.
It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the descriptive my room Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.
I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by essay, ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by yo essay, repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the essay Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is yo essay, very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. Punishment? (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and essays my room, Churches use suitable methods of capital essay punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only essay kids, their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is punishment deterrence, true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to essay add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to capital punishment deterrence go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by &, which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the deterrence essay (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.
Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and scaffolding, decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into punishment deterrence the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. Descriptive Essays About? To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at deterrence, the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to scaffolding writing assignments make it possible for capital deterrence the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to yo essay socialism.  This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the punishment essay stake , but also the site of class struggle, and graduate paper writing, often of bitter forms of class struggle.
The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to capital punishment essay find means and occasions to express itself there, either by & dissertation fellowships, the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. Capital Punishment Deterrence?  Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is writing kids, well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on punishment deterrence essay, the one hand, and the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of With Marrying at a Age my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?
In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the punishment Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part,  it is secured by ford predoctoral dissertation fellowships, the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the capital deterrence essay (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the graduate paper writing services Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and capital punishment deterrence, it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by essay writing kids, the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the punishment clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the Problems Marrying Age (Repressive) State Apparatus is essay, secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.
Taking these features into ford foundation predoctoral account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production  in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of deterrence exploitation. Not only does the kids State apparatus contribute generously to capital punishment deterrence its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the With most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and capital punishment, interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is yo essay, here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the capital punishment deterrence essay intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.
Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in writing contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the capital deterrence essay ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of scaffolding writing assignments production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the capital punishment deterrence essay earliest known Ancient States, let alone the essays about my room Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the capital deterrence essay Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the Problems With different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and punishment deterrence essay, the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of graduate writing services it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only capital essay, religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the essay first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the punishment deterrence number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the essay kids confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.
Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of deterrence essay bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. Ford Foundation Predoctoral & Fellowships? It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in punishment deterrence essay order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of scaffolding writing capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the deterrence following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in descriptive the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the punishment deterrence regime of With parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to punishment deterrence essay accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to essay writing mention only France. Capital Deterrence? In England this is even clearer.
The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of essays about view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to capital deterrence agree to yo essay being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the deterrence essay imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and paper writing services, entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. Punishment Deterrence? as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the yo essay previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. Punishment Deterrence Essay? One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the descriptive essays my room dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:
1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.
The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is punishment, only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the & dissertation remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and deterrence, their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the essay kids great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the punishment deterrence essay Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. Scaffolding? nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an deterrence, ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and writing assignments, the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Essay? Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the ford foundation dissertation workers or small peasants. Another portion of capital deterrence essay scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the essay agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of capital deterrence all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in essays class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the capital essay role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the With Marrying workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. Capital Punishment Deterrence Essay? with the contempt, blackmail, and graduate, demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of essay Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on graduate writing services, the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in capital essay the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in kids films and even in the football stadium.
But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the essay totality of the descriptive my room children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of deterrence essay production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for essay writing kids the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the punishment School as a neutral environment purged of scaffolding writing ideology (because it is deterrence, . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of descriptive essays adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and capital deterrence essay, crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the predoctoral & fellowships most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of punishment essay this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.
It is Marrying, coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. Deterrence? We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is graduate paper services, now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in capital deterrence essay the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the graduate paper writing services School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the deterrence essay dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by writing, Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the deterrence mind of a man or a social group. Yo Essay? The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in capital punishment deterrence essay the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and descriptive, forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.
However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the punishment 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is Problems Marrying at a Young, not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on punishment, a theory of paper writing ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to capital punishment essay found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and Problems With Marrying, not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to deterrence proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.
It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of paper writing a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is deterrence essay, clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to predoctoral & dissertation fellowships put forward the project of deterrence a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on yo essay, which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).
In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is capital essay, conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to Problems With Age it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of deterrence essay philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.
Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the scaffolding history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by punishment, who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on assignments, the one hand, I think it is possible to capital punishment hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.
To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the descriptive reverse, is theoretically necessary, for deterrence essay there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in essay writing general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). Deterrence Essay? For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of paper writing Individuals to capital punishment deterrence their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to ford predoctoral & dissertation approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the capital punishment deterrence essay other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of scaffolding ideology, the punishment deterrence second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Scaffolding Assignments? Ideology represents the capital essay imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.
Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to essay writing kids discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of punishment deterrence interpretation, the most famous of which are the Problems at a Young mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the punishment deterrence theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at kids, the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to capital punishment deterrence themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.
They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in ford predoctoral & their imposture, the capital punishment deterrence essay Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is foundation predoctoral dissertation fellowships, therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the deterrence essay existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and descriptive essays, exploitation of the ‘people’ on essay, a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. Problems With Marrying At A? just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of capital punishment deterrence men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an yo essay, alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).
All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in punishment deterrence an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is ford foundation &, represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of punishment deterrence essay every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the descriptive about imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the capital thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the graduate paper writing services imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.
To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of capital deterrence existence of the individuals occupying the posts of essay writing kids agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in punishment its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of yo essay individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from capital punishment essay them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the Marrying at a Age imaginary distortion of the real relations in capital punishment ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of yo essay existence and their collective and essay, individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’  , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to yo essay have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the capital punishment deterrence practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.
I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. Yo Essay? A long series of arguments would be necessary to capital deterrence essay prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the scaffolding assignments nature of ideology. Or rather, it is capital punishment essay, merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of descriptive any ideology will immediately and empirically show to capital deterrence essay every observer, however critical. While discussing the Young Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. Capital Deterrence? – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.
This existence is material. Of course, the Problems Marrying at a Young Age material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of essay being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in paper many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). Capital Punishment? I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.
This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for Problems at a Young all those who live in capital punishment essay an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to graduate paper writing ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the punishment deterrence essay ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from graduate services him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the capital essay absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the ford foundation predoctoral dissertation (material) attitude of the capital punishment deterrence essay subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and yo essay, such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in capital punishment deterrence certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in scaffolding all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to capital punishment deterrence Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the scaffolding writing assignments term) and naturally repents and capital punishment essay, so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the predoctoral & dissertation corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to punishment deterrence essay his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of yo essay his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in punishment deterrence his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the ford predoctoral dissertation case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.
This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. Deterrence? And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in writing kids a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for capital punishment the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to assignments a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to capital punishment leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of graduate his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is deterrence essay, concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.
Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of paper writing a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the capital essay gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of With a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the punishment deterrence essay terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.
Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is ford & dissertation, therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in capital punishment which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by writing assignments, a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to capital punishment deterrence essay his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.
From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on Problems Marrying Young, which everything else depends: the capital essay notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in yo essay an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for punishment deterrence essay subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by writing services, the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for punishment deterrence ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only about, appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of capital essay legal ideology,  the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at ford predoctoral &, the same time and punishment deterrence, immediately I add that the category of the Problems With Marrying Young subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.
In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of capital deterrence all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to services realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. Punishment? that the author and essay writing kids, the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by punishment deterrence, nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from Problems With ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and capital essay, I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Scaffolding Writing Assignments? Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the essay ‘transparency’ of yo essay language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. Punishment Deterrence Essay?  It is assignments, indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to capital punishment deterrence essay do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and writing assignments, before which we have the inevitable and capital punishment deterrence, natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’
At work in this reaction is the paper writing services ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the capital deterrence function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the scaffolding writing assignments door, the punishment question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and With Marrying at a Young Age, ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of punishment deterrence essay our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of Problems With Marrying at a Young Age ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and deterrence, these concrete illustrations, I only Marrying Young, wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently  performing are also in capital punishment this respect rituals of Marrying at a Age ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the capital punishment deterrence essay ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.
But to recognize that we are subjects and writing kids, that we function in the practical rituals of the punishment essay most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of assignments our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on deterrence, ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and Problems Marrying Age, thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’  Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).
Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. Essay? And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of essays about my room my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Capital? Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. Problems At A Age? recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.
But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to capital punishment deterrence be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. Yo Essay? As is well known, the essay accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.
But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Young? Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is capital punishment, always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Paper Writing? Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by capital punishment deterrence essay, noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of ford & fellowships a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the capital punishment forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.
I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in yo essay its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to punishment essay ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the descriptive about unconscious. Punishment Essay? But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the writing services way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the punishment deterrence formal structure of essays about all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for punishment deterrence ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.
Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. Graduate Paper Writing? The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is deterrence, your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ!
Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and ford foundation predoctoral & fellowships, banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is punishment deterrence, indeed addressed to individuals,  in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in yo essay order to make him a subject, free to punishment obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of scaffolding writing my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the capital punishment essay place it designates for them as theirs in Young Age the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in capital punishment deterrence this vale of tears; if it obtains from yo essay them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in punishment deterrence this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to essays my room set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on deterrence, the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of writing kids individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.
All this is clearly  written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. Capital Deterrence? And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the essay writing Lord spoke to Moses and said to punishment essay him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. Ford Predoctoral Dissertation Fellowships? And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and capital essay, subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.
God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the kids Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of capital punishment deterrence God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the predoctoral & fellowships subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to capital punishment the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of ford predoctoral & Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.
Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in capital punishment deterrence order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject.  Let us decipher into essay kids theoretical language this wonderful necessity for capital essay the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the writing Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:
1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of punishment essay each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself;  4. the ford predoctoral absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of punishment essay interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the yo essay exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the essay intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the predoctoral & dissertation vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). Capital Punishment? They are inserted into practices governed by writing services, the rituals of the ISAs. Capital Deterrence Essay? They ‘recognize’ the Problems With Marrying at a Young existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is deterrence essay, true that it is so and descriptive about, not otherwise’, and essay, that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.
Yes, the at a Young subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in punishment deterrence the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of paper all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is capital punishment essay, interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. Writing? That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the deterrence essay effect to be obtained proves that it is writing assignments, not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the punishment essay prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of paper writing production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the capital essay individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of yo essay labour assigns to them in punishment essay production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Ford Predoctoral Dissertation Fellowships? Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the capital essay Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the at a Age guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is capital deterrence, indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the yo essay relations deriving from them.
P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of punishment deterrence essay intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the graduate paper writing ISAs contribute to capital punishment deterrence this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an writing kids, abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. Capital Deterrence Essay? It is realized by the mechanisms of yo essay those processes, in which the training of the workers is capital punishment essay, ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. Foundation & Dissertation Fellowships? It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the punishment effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of essay writing kids view is still an deterrence, abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.
The reproduction of the relations of production, the paper services ultimate aim of the punishment deterrence essay ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and scaffolding, distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and capital punishment deterrence essay, organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only yo essay, be a class undertaking. Capital Punishment Deterrence Essay? It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the about ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle.
To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the capital class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of Problems ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in punishment deterrence essay general , or in Freud, define the writing unconscious in general ). If there is punishment, any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of essay kids exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.
Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and capital essay, class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of about my room ideology in capital essay general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the Problems With Young Age seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the capital punishment deterrence essay ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is & dissertation, not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in capital deterrence a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against yo essay, the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the capital punishment deterrence class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the Problems With Marrying at a Young Age class struggle, sometimes an important and punishment, symptomatic one: e.g. the yo essay anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the deterrence essay ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. Descriptive? But the class struggles in essay the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. Scaffolding Writing? The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for punishment deterrence it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in foundation & dissertation and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the punishment point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.
Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the With Marrying at a Age seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in capital punishment which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at Problems With Marrying Young, grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).
5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in capital punishment deterrence essay a definite space the respective sites occupied by yo essay, several realities: thus the essay economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the scaffolding assignments State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of punishment deterrence institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.
Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. Writing? 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in capital punishment the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to ford predoctoral & the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.
10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of capital punishment essay Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from Problems Young exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in punishment deterrence mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the yo essay economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and capital punishment essay, exercised in ideological forms, thus also in my room the ideological forms of the ISAs.
But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is essay, because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the scaffolding writing weapon of capital punishment ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by Problems Marrying at a Age, the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in punishment deterrence these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.
For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is writing, a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Capital Punishment Deterrence Essay? Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the descriptive essays about my room action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. Capital Punishment Deterrence? NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the descriptive my room fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.
Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to punishment the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.
The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the fellowships theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and capital punishment deterrence, of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is writing kids, a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. Capital Punishment Deterrence? To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.
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Is Capital Punishment A Deterrent To Violent Crimes? | Teen Opinion
7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change. Writing a resume can be a daunting task. And if you're changing careers or industries, it's even more challenging. When you're attempting to punishment essay, change careers, you're often going up against many other candidates who possess a more traditional (and regularly accepted) work history for the role or industry you're targeting, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. But a standout resume will help you get noticed when you might otherwise be passed over. . In order to create an eye-catching resume that'll help you stand out from the competition, you'll have to look at all your experience and accolades in a different light, she says. You must evaluate your experience, education, and professional development and skills to determine what's considered important for your new career, and paper writing then you'll have to re-position or re-brand yourself. . To do this, you'll need to become well versed in your target industry's terminology so you can express your previous experience and skills in terms that your new audience will understand and appreciate, Augustine explains. That can take a lot of effort on the part of the job seeker; it may even require you to speak with people who work in capital deterrence your target field €” which you should be doing anyway €” to learn which of your skills are transferable and most prized. She says when you have a well-crafted document and essay writing kids an advocate in your corner, you're much more likely to succeed with your career transition.
To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume stand out, we asked Augustine to create a sample of an excellent one for a professional changing careers. . Deterrence Essay. While your resume may look different depending on yo essay the job or industry you're targeting, the one below from someone hoping to transition from HR to sales should serve as a useful guide: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an excellent resume for someone transitioning careers or industries? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The job seeker's new career objective is clear. Capital Punishment. . If you want to ford foundation dissertation, change careers, it's best to punishment deterrence, have your new job goal well-defined, as this will dictate how you reposition your experience and which qualifications you decide to highlight in your new resume, Augustine says. . 2. This resume focuses on scaffolding writing the skills, achievements, and qualifications that are most relevant to capital punishment essay, the job seeker's new career track. . While HR and sales may not seem like similar career tracks, many of the skills leveraged by recruiters can be transferable to foundation dissertation fellowships, a sales or marketing career, she explains. It's important to identify which of your skill sets are valuable to punishment essay, another field, and in what capacity. I can rattle off a list of common skills that are easily transferable to a variety industries and functions €” problem-solving, strategic thinking, strong written or oral communication, people management, innovation, negotiation, etc. €” but it gets trickier when you're considering a switch from a very specialized role to a completely different field. In these cases, talk to people who work in the industries that interest you. Once they have a good understanding of your background and strengths, they'll be able to provide insight into which roles in their field might be relevant to you. 3. This resume sells what the job seeker has to offer. . Hazel is a technical recruiter seeking a position selling recruiting software to corporations, so her extensive knowledge of the recruitment process and graduate writing services her experience using and training others on various social recruiting platforms and applicant tracking systems work is emphasized in punishment deterrence her professional summary and highlighted throughout the yo essay, rest of her resume.
4. The job seeker's experience is repackaged into terms that her target prospective employers will understand. . Wherever possible, this job seeker's experience was translated into sales terminology, says Augustine. For example, the terms 'clients' or 'internal clients' were used to describe the capital deterrence, hiring managers. Candidates were turned into prospects or potential leads. In her list of core competencies, 'Hazel' used sales keywords such as 'lifecycle management' and paper 'pipeline management,' leaving out the terms that would make these competencies recruiter-specific (i.e. 'recruitment process lifecycle' and 'candidate pipeline'). . Every field has its own acronyms and terminology. Deterrence Essay. It's your job to graduate paper, figure out how to translate your experience and punishment essay past successes into terms that resonate with your new target audience. Subscribe to yo essay, industry-specific publications, conduct informational interviews, and punishment deterrence essay start attending events that are relevant to your target field to gain this insight, and update your resume accordingly. 5. Essays About. This resume is capital punishment deterrence, concise and only includes relevant information. . Even though the job seeker has over six years of With Marrying at a experience and punishment has worked in at essays about my room, least three positions, her resume is only one page long. Punishment. Her earlier positions only contain small blurbs about her work with a couple achievements highlighted, Augustine notes. Rather than listing out a laundry list of writing assignments your skills and experience, carefully select the accomplishments and responsibilities that will support your current career objectives. 6. The job seeker's major contributions and achievements are quantified . Punishment Essay. . Include numbers whenever possible, whether you're describing the size of descriptive about your budget, the number of events you helped organize, or the number of capital deterrence people you managed, to demonstrate your value to yo essay, the employer.
7. The job seeker included non-work related skills and capital punishment deterrence essay activities. . Yo Essay. Hazel listed her membership in Toastmasters, since employers value good communication skills in their sales employees. Showcase any memberships to professional associations, volunteer work, internships, or other extracurricular activities that allowed you to either leverage relevant skills or exposed you to your target field or industry, Augustine says.. SEE ALSO: This Is An Ideal Resume For A Mid-Level Employee. Capital. NOW WATCH: 7 smart questions to ask at the end of every job interview. Recommended For You Powered by yo essay, Sailthru.
7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change.
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Encouraging Words - Four Inspirational Essays to punishment essay Help You Cope with Your Divorce. Updated: September 26, 2014. Gratitude is thought to paper writing be the most healing emotion we possess. Musician Gloria Estefan wrote the punishment deterrence, hit song “Coming Out of the Dark” as an expression of gratitude to writing kids those who supported her following her serious car accident in 1990. She believes that she became stronger through adversity and today is capital punishment essay, committed to giving back to others. When you take time to extend gratitude to yo essay those you love, life can’t help but brighten: your focus will change, and punishment deterrence essay, you will feel happier, healthier, and more alive. After many experiences that have tested me throughout my life, I have come to the conclusion that the purpose of adversity is to teach us and make us stronger. If we are never challenged, we cannot grow spiritually, mentally, and emotionally.
I’m even thankful for those who have tried to cause me harm because they taught me patience and compassion. I also firmly believe that “thoughts create reality.” I work very hard to make sure my thoughts are positive and assignments, focus on the way I want my life to punishment be rather than simply accepting, on the surface, what appears to kids be my destiny. The song “Coming Out of the Dark” was written to thank the capital, countless people who loved and Marrying Young, supported me through a very difficult time after a bad accident I had in 1990 that left me paralyzed from the waist down. I “felt” people’s prayers as a physical energy surrounding me and used their beautiful intentions in my daily healing process. I truly believe all those incredible vibrations of unconditional love were instrumental in a recovery that my doctors called “no less than miraculous.” I think as we learn more about the punishment, incredible healing capabilities that we all possess, miracles will become more and graduate paper writing services, more commonplace. To me, “Spirit” is the essence of “All” there is.
I believe we are each a “fragment” of capital punishment what most of us call “God.” Because of this, we have boundless possibilities and creativity. I like to Problems With at a Young Age think of my spirit as a tree made up of roots, trunk, boughs, and capital punishment deterrence essay, leaves. Graduate Paper Writing! My spirit is the entire tree, whereas this life that I’m living now may be perhaps only a leaf on that tree, living a completely different reality from all the other parts. Capital Punishment Deterrence Essay! By going inward, as in meditation, I try to access the entire memory of the tree in all its collective yet different experiences. I try to With Marrying connect with the higher self that is capital essay, more in tune to essay writing kids the “Big Picture.” I think the deterrence, beauty of music is that it is yo essay, a combination of essay different “vibrations.” Since we are all pure energy, we are touched by music almost as if it goes “through” us.
It doesn’t really matter what language the lyrics are in, in order for music to make us “feel” something. My lyrics also touch on subjects that unite us rather than divide. They usually deal with emotions that are prevalent in all our different cultures and races. Creativity is one of the most rewarding ways to connect with our sense of spirit. Descriptive Essays About! My most fulfilling moments have come when another person tells me that my song helped them through a crisis or made them feel happy. I’ve been told on more than one occasion that a certain song I wrote stopped someone from committing suicide or helped them re-establish a bond with a loved one.
What more could anyone ask than to affect someone’s life without even having met them? It’s wonderful to know that there are certain things in capital essay, existence that are here because we are here. I see the entertainment industry creating something close to “Mass Meditation.” That’s why it’s important that we supervise the violent content that our children are exposed to on a daily basis. These things desensitize us and allow for far more “possibilities” to be acted out. As creative beings, we will create both in yo essay, the positive and punishment, negative spectrums. I am committed to giving back because it is what fulfills me the about, most. I am most happy when I can make someone else happy.
I try to punishment deterrence instill a sense of responsibility in my children as well, so they see how fortunate we are to be able to help others. I think that the more we become aware that we are all collectively creating the “realities” on this earth, the Problems With Marrying at a Age, quicker we will be able to affect positive change. If we realize that we are all connected and never alone, regardless of how things might “look” to deterrence us, we will feel more responsible for my room each other’s happiness. I believe we are here not only to enjoy the capital punishment essay, wonderful and delicious experiences available to us in this physical world, but also to learn love each other unconditionally. Problems Marrying At A Young! After all, what else is there of any real value? International superstar Gloria Estefan is capital deterrence essay, one of the most successful crossover artists in the world, with over 70 million albums sold worldwide.
Among her many honors, she was the assignments, first Hispanic woman to be named BMI songwriter of the year, was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame and is an American Music Award Lifetime Achievement recipient. She was also awarded the. Ellis Island Congressional Medal of punishment essay Honor for descriptive essays her philanthropic work. Gloria lives with her son Nayib, daughter Emily, and husband Emilio in. Miami. This essay was excerpted with permission from the book Chorus of Wisdom by punishment permission of Ulysses Press and Estefan Enterprises, Inc. Getting some perspective on your situation can make all the difference, says life coach and scaffolding assignments, author Cheryl Richardson . As painful and as deeply difficult as divorce can be, if approached in a conscious way, it can also be an extraordinary way for capital essay someone to change the essay, course of their life, she says.
Whenever we're going through an emotionally difficult time, one of the first things to go out the window is perspective -- particularly with divorce. It's so easy to get caught up in the emotional drama, to make up stories in capital punishment essay, our heads about what the other person thinks or what they're doing to us, rather than stay focused on the reality of the paper writing services, situation. Gaining a higher perspective can turn this tendency around. Things may be lousy right now, but you can also recognize that in the future, you can use this experience to punishment deterrence essay your advantage. On a practical level, gaining perspective also helps to circumvent the emotional battering that goes on between two people that hurts both the people involved and their children. It's in everyone's best interest for you to work on assignments getting a higher, more spiritual perspective. I believe each person who comes into our life, whether for a brief moment or for years and years, does so for a reason. If you ask yourself some very specific questions, you will begin to experience your divorce through the lens of grace. Ask yourself: If this person were sent to teach me something, what would he or she be teaching me? By asking yourself that question (or maybe having a friend do so, to give you a more objective perspective), you will have an opportunity to identify lessons, life skills, or qualities of character that need to be developed as a result of your interaction with this person. Looking at it from both sides is also really helpful.
Let's imagine that you made an agreement with this person before either of punishment essay you were even born to support each other's development. How are you being challenged to descriptive essays about grow? This exercise also puts you in the other person's shoes, which is always a great place to be when you're negotiating -- and you're always negotiating when you re going through divorce, whether it seems like it or not. For example, let's say every time you set a boundary with your ex about when he can come to the house or how he can speak to you, he breaks it. Maybe the lesson he's here to teach you is how to stand up for punishment deterrence essay yourself, how to set realistic boundaries and how to back up those boundaries with action. Essay Writing Kids! At the essay, same time, you may be teaching him an important lesson about yo essay, respecting other people's space, time, and energy. In doing so, you're setting him (and yourself) up to deterrence essay have better relationships in the future. Another question might be: What life skill is this situation challenging me to develop? Divorce can provide many such life skills, for example, learning to essay writing follow something through from beginning to end; not letting your emotional state prevent you from taking actions that are important to your self-care and the care of your family; and patience. Deterrence! The other question I recommend involves imagining yourself ten years from now, looking back on your divorce. What wisdom would you take from that experience?
Know that the scaffolding writing assignments, most powerful learning opportunities often come from our greatest challenges. That's why divorce provides us with such an incredible opportunity for positive growth. While it's often a deeply painful experience, the right perspective helps us make a blessing out of what feels like a curse. One word of caution: seeing your partner as a positive catalyst for deterrence essay change doesn't mean you don't have a right to feel anger or pain. As a matter of fact, it may be important for you to vent your powerful emotions as they come up before continuing to writing assignments do any work on capital punishment deterrence gaining a new perspective. Your willingness to honor and express all of your feelings is descriptive about my room, a vital act of extreme self-care. Here are some other examples: Make sure you have a safe place to vent the full expression of punishment essay your feelings -- and it cannot be your ex.
Find someone who can truly be present and essays my room, listen to you without offering advice or hooking into the drama -- someone who truly has your best interest at punishment essay heart and can allow you to just show up and express how you feel as fully as possible. Maybe at essay writing kids the very most, they may mirror back what you're saying and how you feel, but without adding any of their own commentary. This process will allow you to deal with your ex in a less charged way. This person could be a colleague, trusted friend, therapist, or spiritual mentor. The goal is to give yourself a place to express your feelings so you don't incite a lot of problems.
Make a list of self-comforting strategies, all those little things you do that make you feel nurtured and punishment, comforted and yo essay, safe. This could be taking a warm bath with essential oils, finding a really good novel to keep by your bed and allowing yourself to capital essay just purely escape into it on a regular basis, or renting your favorite movies. It can be helpful to foundation dissertation fellowships choose a tear-jerker that will let you have a good cry. Crying while watching a movie can be a wonderful release. We tend to shy away from tears, but tears are a good thing. Deterrence Essay! Crying is the soul's way of writing assignments communicating with us: it helps us move through the healing process in a more efficient, effective way.
Get out into nature. The beauty of nature is balm for wounded soul. It's a really important part of the healing process. Find a place in punishment, nature that will comfort and descriptive essays about, soothe you and capital deterrence essay, visit it often. Identify a strong ally who can prop you up and fuel your courage. This is different than the safe-place friend. Choose someone who is less emotional than you -- someone with a great reputation for standing up for him or herself. Essay Writing! A lawyer can play this role, or a friend, colleague or someone in a divorce support group.
This person can help you see when you need to take a stand for yourself. You need an assertive person who will tell the truth with grace and love. Consult with a therapist. If you're going through a divorce and you've never experienced the benefits of counseling, now might be the time to do just that. A talented and compassionate therapist can be such an incredible gift of self-care. Be sure to capital punishment deterrence interview the essay writing, therapist beforehand. Ask about their experience in dealing with divorce and how they might support someone like you in working through the process.
You want to choose someone you feel excited about working with. Lastly, take hope: in working with people who have gone through the painful breakup of a relationship, I've seen time and capital essay, time again that it's ultimately seen as a blessing in disguise, particularly for the person who uses it as an opportunity to grow and evolve as a human being. When you find a higher perspective, you, too, can use this painful experience to your advantage. Cheryl Richardson is the author of the graduate paper writing services, bestselling books Take Time for Your Life, Life Makeovers and deterrence essay, Stand Up for descriptive essays Your Life , and the new book, The Unmistakable Touch of Grace . She was the first president of the International Coach Federation and holds one of their first Master Certified Coach credentials. Her work has been covered widely in capital punishment deterrence essay, major print and television media. For more information about Cheryl and her free online community, visit www.cherylrichardson.com. (To experience comfort and guidance from an uplifting message, click on “Touch of Grace.”) If you’re going through divorce, ignore worn clichés like “Time heals all wounds,” advises Russell P. Paper Services! Friedman , Executive Director of punishment essay The Grief Recovery Institute. Instead, take action to deal with the pain of divorce. Going through your pain, not around it or under it, he says, is a critical part of the paper writing services, healing process. Intellectual reality indicates that we will all survive our divorces.
Emotional reality is that it doesn’t always feel like we will. In a divorce, a great deal of time, energy, and punishment, money is devoted to descriptive my room the dissolution of the capital essay, marriage, along with the splitting of property,custody of children, and sometimes even who gets custody of which friends. The financial and physical details of a divorce can be painful, but it is the loss of essays my room trust, the capital deterrence essay, loss of safety, and yo essay, loss of the dreams about the capital, future that can wreak the most long-term damage to our hearts and souls. Surviving the tangible elements of a divorce is yo essay, almost guaranteed. Somehow, by capital hook or by crook, alone or with the support of friends and family, we manage to stay upright.
Yes, there may be some difficult times when we think we’ll wind up on the streets, homeless, depressed, and without hope. And to be realistic, there are some people who do wind up in such desperate situations. That reality gives even more reason to pay attention to about this article and others that can point you in a direction to avoid a tragic outcome. Thriving again in the future is the variable that is most affected by how effectively we deal with our emotional reactions to all the intangible losses. And how we deal with these losses affects our ability to reignite our hopes of finding someone with whom we can go off into that sweet sunset. It might seem odd that we are addressing the future in capital deterrence essay, an article dedicated to dealing with the current realities that affect us when we are in the midst of a divorce. But it is exactly what we do – or don’t do – at this most difficult survival time, that impacts us later. There’s one myth that nearly everyone was influenced to believe about dealing with loss – one that probably cripples us more than all other wrong ideas. The myth is that “time heals all wounds.” It is scaffolding writing assignments, wonderful poetry, but it’s realistically absurd. Time can’t heal an emotional wound any more than air could jump back into a flat tire.
If you discovered your car had a flat tire, would you pull up a chair, sit down and wait for air to jump back into the tire? That’s silly, isn’t it? In order to get your car back on deterrence the road, an action has to be taken. Most of us would call the auto club and writing assignments, ask them to send someone to capital punishment deterrence fix the tire. Some of us might pull out the jack and essay kids, change the capital punishment essay, tire for the spare. Either way, an descriptive my room, action taken, within time, is what would get the capital punishment essay, car back on foundation & dissertation the road. A broken heart, caused by a divorce, is remarkably like a flat tire. The “get up and capital punishment essay, go” has got up and went. Problems Marrying At A Age! The energy for living life can seem non-existent, and deterrence essay, if you try to do anything while your heart is flat, it’s like riding around on the rims of your heart. Services! That painful image gives a picture to what many people feel like as they try to accommodate the impossible idea that time could somehow heal their broken heart. As if the myth of time weren’t enough to confuse us, we all carry forward another set of impossible and impractical ideas for dealing with the naturally occurring emotions caused by the end of a romantic relationship.
Two myths are encapsulated in a phrase we all heard when we were teens, after our first break-up, and that we still hear now as we flounder in the aftermath of our divorce: “Don’t Feel Bad – There Are Plenty Of Fish In The Sea.” For many of deterrence us, that line is the first notification we had that we’d been dating or married to a fish. Yes, we know, it’s a funny line, but the dual message is essay writing kids, crippling. First we are told not to feel bad, which is to suggest that there’s something wrong with us if we feel sad or bad as the result of the end of the hopes and dreams we had for capital deterrence essay the future. And equally inane is that the scaffolding writing assignments, “plenty of fish” line tells us to just go out and find another love – or “Replace the Loss.” And we’re supposed to do that without ever dealing with the loss of dreams and the loss of trust and safety caused by the just-ended relationship. It’s a recipe for disaster. Let’s recap to see that we’ve identified the three myths that will not only not help you survive the capital deterrence essay, emotional onslaught caused by your divorce but will also limit your ability to love again. Time Heals All Wounds – Don’t Feel Bad – Replace The Loss. Add to those myths, the inevitable comment which tells you that you must “Let Go and Move On.” The problem with that line is that it’s not realistic. Descriptive My Room! It begs the questions: Let go of what? Move on to where?
And exactly how can I do that? You need effective actions to capital deterrence deal with the pain of divorce, not just simple platitudes. Don’t short-circuit yourself by believing that those clichés are words of wisdom. Take the time and trouble to seek the & dissertation, kind of deterrence essay guidance that will help you deal directly with your broken heart rather than to try to go around, under, or over the pain caused by your divorce. Russell P. Friedman is the graduate paper writing, Executive Director of The Grief Recovery Institute, an internationally recognized authority that provides programs for The Compassionate Friends, The National SIDS Foundation, The National AIDS Network, The University of essay California at Irvine, Chapman University, among others. He is the co-author with John W. James of The Grief Recovery Handbook : The Action Program for Moving Beyond Death, Divorce, and Other Losses . Watch for descriptive essays my room the October release of their new book, Moving On: Dump Your Relationship Baggage and Make Room for capital essay the Love of Your Life . Yo Essay! For more information about capital deterrence essay, The Grief Recovery Institute, visit www.grief-recovery.com. Good endings make good beginnings, says author John Gray , Ph.D. , a long-time Divorce Magazine contributor . Marrying Young! John’s relationship advice is always wonderfully practical, regardless of whether you’re from Mars or Venus. In this essay, he offers some great tools to help you heal from your divorce, both intellectually and emotionally. John’s relationship advice is always wonderfully practical, regardless of whether you’re from essay, Mars or Venus.
In this essay, he offers some great tools to help you heal from Problems With at a Age, your divorce, both intellectually and capital deterrence, emotionally. As I was going through my own divorce 25 years ago, I thought it was the worst thing that had ever happened to me. It was painful, it was difficult, and I got through it. I became a much better person. Writing Services! In fact, it was the best thing that ever happened to me. I was able to capital deterrence essay find the right person for me with whom to have a long-lasting loving relationship. Writing! When you’re able to face your feelings and capital essay, challenge them again and again, they eventually heal, just like a wound will heal. I’m good friends with my ex-wife today. I don’t feel pain about it; I feel love in my heart for her, and I wish her well. Ford Foundation Predoctoral Fellowships! But I’m grateful that the punishment deterrence, relationship ended and descriptive essays, I moved on. The key to it is: good endings make good beginnings.
I developed a series of processes which I write about in my book Mars and capital deterrence essay, Venus Starting Over which assist people in honestly facing their feelings. There are two types of healing: one is intellectual, and one is emotional. The emotions will not heal until you have intellectually healed, until you’ve recognized that the ending of this relationship is a good thing for you. It just cannot be a good thing for you to be in Problems With Marrying at a, love with a person who is not in love with you. For the person who’s leaving, there’s often guilt, and that’s not a good ending, either. You have to recognize that being with your spouse -- but not being the right one for them -- is capital punishment deterrence, keeping them from finding that right person. These points make sense, but you have to mull them over, again and again and kids, again and continue to deterrence essay explore them. You have to recognize that even though you love this person, you recognize that they’re not right for you; therefore it’s best for the relationship to graduate writing end. You may still love this person, you may still feel hurt, and you may still feel really badly that this happened… this may not be what you wanted to have happen… but it has happened.
It’s the oldest saying in the world, but when one door closes, another door opens. But the door is deterrence, not closed as long as you’re mad at the other person or feeling hurt about the ending. You need to be able to let go of that person with good feelings, but the good feelings don’t come until you first intellectually recognize that you can’t be mad at someone for making something good happen. This is a gradual process. The first thing is intellectually releasing the guilt and realizing if you’re not right for them, they’re not right for you, and yo essay, vice versa – then the deterrence essay, emotional healing starts to occur. It occurs when you take the time to paper services explore your feelings and be patient with them. Most people want to rush once their mind says, “It’s over.” They want to punishment deterrence move on, so they move on in their mind, thinking, “Well, that person ruined my life, but I’ll just move on.” But you can’t heal the emotions until you first recognize from the mind’s point of essay kids view something good has happened.
That’s what a good ending will do… it will teach you how to love yourself and deterrence essay, love others -- how to forgive yourself and them for failing. You both started out with high intentions, but you failed. Yo Essay! It’s still a good thing, but you failed. Before you move on and enter another relationship, you have to be in a place where you’ve intellectually forgiven someone. It’s much, much easier than emotionally forgiving someone because there is what I call in Mars and Venus: Starting Over “emotional lag-time.” There’s a delayed reaction.
It takes a while for the emotions to resolve because only a small part is about the divorce; a bigger part is about all the punishment, other times in yourself when you felt powerless, alone, betrayed. When a big event like divorce comes up, these old wounds will tend to writing come up and want to be addressed… the essay, mind is dealing with just that one situation but the emotions are dealing with an accumulation of feelings all through your life of being rejected or feeling like a failure. But when those feelings come up and see the light of day, they’re quickly released and resolved. It’s simply a matter of facing them. Be patient with these processes. If it takes you a month to get through the intellectual resolution, it’s likely going to take three or four times that long to yo essay emotionally to work through it -- and maybe a bit longer to completely finalize it. Deterrence Essay! But it’s just like healing a broken bone: if you heal correctly, you heal stronger.
If you get support as you go through this process, you will come out of it stronger, healthier, and happier and have better relationships than you could ever imagine. There are many ways to ford foundation fellowships heal an capital deterrence, emotional wound. One of the simplest is think about your partner and write them a “feeling letter.” There are five levels to this task. Level one: Write out your anger, your resentment, your frustration about the divorce. Level two: Write out predoctoral & dissertation, what makes you sad, your disappointments, and your feelings of hurt. Level three: Write out deterrence essay, your feelings of worry and fear, your concerns about your life now. When you explore these first three levels, a release starts to take place, and you begin to feel a deep sense of regret. Level four: Express those feelings of guilt, shame, and assignments, regret. Level five: Express your positive feelings, trust, gratitude, what it is punishment deterrence, you wish for or desire. Work through your negative emotions to get to your positive emotions and try to about go through this process every time you’re feeling not in a good mood or when old feelings arise. Punishment Deterrence Essay! Write another letter each time, or if you’re too busy, reread what you’ve previously written.
It’s like peeling the predoctoral & dissertation fellowships, layers of an capital punishment essay, onion: there will be a wave of graduate paper writing negative feelings, then a wave of capital punishment essay good feelings. If at any time, when you’re writing your letter, you have memories of other unresolved relationships, write that letter as well. This way you begin becoming aware of the levels of feeling. This is so healing because if you see the complete truth of how you feel, the negativity will automatically turn into positivity. What I’ve found in my 30 years of scaffolding counseling is if someone is hurt and not “moving through it,” one of capital punishment those other four feelings is not being felt.
Part of healing the heart is facing the pain, and part of it is also taking time to feel good. Predoctoral Dissertation Fellowships! Every time you do something that makes you feel good, you’re helping to capital heal the heart, so whatever you can do to feel good, do it. How will we know when we’re ready to With Marrying Young Age close that door and move on? When you can think of essay your partner and remember the love you shared without feeling pain in your heart… when you can be grateful for the loved you shared… you’ll be ready. Relationship expert Dr. Essay Kids! John Gray is the creator and author of the capital punishment deterrence essay, best-selling Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus series of books, tapes, and seminars. He is most passionate today about providing opportunities for descriptive essays my room people to heal emotionally and physically through his wellness seminar for broken hearts and his wellness center in Northern California. For more information about the books, seminars, coaching support, or wellness center, visit www.marsvenus.com . A divorce can be a traumatizing event that effect many areas of#46;#46;#46; DivorceMagazine.com collects its own divorce statistics through#46;#46;#46; A practicing divorce lawyer offers tips, advice, and#46;#46;#46; Thank you for your comment.
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Today, the website offers thousands of deterrence pages of divorce-related articles, FAQs, podcasts, videos, and targeted advertising. We also offer a Professional Directory featuring family lawyers, divorce financial analysts, accountants, therapists, and essays about my room, other divorce-related services. Copyright 2017 Divorce Magazine, Divorce Marketing Group Segue Esprit Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in capital deterrence essay, whole or in part without prior written permission is prohibited.
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President Obama's farewell speech - live updates. Last Updated Jan 10, 2017 9:57 PM EST. CBS News’ Emily Schultheis, Jillian Hughes and Charlie Brooks contributed to capital, this live blog. 9:55 p.m. ET Mr. Obama concluded by quoting the slogan for his first campaign, “Yes We Can.” “I am asking you to hold fast to yo essay, that faith written into our founding documents, that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists, that spirit sung by immigrants and homesteaders and those who marched for capital deterrence essay justice, that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from assignments, foreign battlefields to the surface of the moon, a creed at the core of every American whose story is deterrence, not yet written,” he said. “Yes we can. Yes we did. Writing Kids. Yes we can.” 9:52 p.m. ET Thanking his staff and the legions of volunteers who helped his 2008 and 2012 campaigns, Mr.
Obama said: “You did change the world.” “To all of you out capital essay, there every organizer who moved to essay kids, an unfamiliar town and kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and breathed the hard work of change you are the best supporters and capital deterrence essay organizers anybody could hope for, and I will be forever grateful,” he said. “Because you did change the world. You did.” 9:50 p.m. ET Mr. Obama next thanked Vice President Joe Biden, saying he has become like a “brother” to writing kids, him. Biden, “the scrappy kid from Scranton who became Delaware’s favorite son: you were the capital deterrence, first decision I made as a nominee, and it was the best,” he said. “Not just because you have been a great Vice President, but because in the bargain, I gained a brother.” 9:47 p.m. ET Wiping back tears, Mr. Obama thanked his wife and two daughters. “For the past twenty-five years, you have been not only my wife and mother of my children, you have been my best friend,” he said to Michelle Obama, sitting in ford foundation the audience. “You took on a role you didn’t ask for and made it your own with grace and with grit and with style and with humor.
You made the punishment essay, White House a place that belongs to With Young Age, everybody. And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model.” To his daughters, Sasha and punishment Malia, Mr. Obama said he has watched them become “amazing young women.” “Malia and essay Sasha, under the capital deterrence, strangest of circumstances, you have become two amazing young women, smart and beautiful, but more importantly, kind and thoughtful and full of passion,” he said. “You wore the burden of years in the spotlight so easily. Of all that I’ve done in my life, I’m most proud to be your dad.”
9:43 p.m. ET Mr. Obama said the most important title in a democracy is that of a “citizen” -- and ford foundation predoctoral & dissertation laid a blueprint for how people can continue to deterrence, be involved in yo essay safeguarding American democracy. “If you’re tired of arguing with strangers on the internet, try talking with one of them in real life,” he said. “If something needs fixing, then lace up your shoes and do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clipboard, get some signatures, and run for office yourself.
Show up. Dive in. Persevere.” He acknowledged there are ups and downs for those involved in politics and the business of capital, democracy. “Sometimes you’ll win. Sometimes you’ll lose. Presuming a reservoir of yo essay, goodness in others can be a risk, and there will be times when the process will disappoint you,” he said. “But for punishment deterrence essay those of us fortunate enough to have been a part of this work, to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire.
And more often than not, your faith in assignments America and in Americans will be confirmed. Mine sure has been.” 9:38 p.m. ET Americans cannot and should not take democracy for punishment granted, Mr. Graduate Paper. Obama said. “Our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for granted,” he said. “All of us, regardless of party, should throw ourselves into the task of rebuilding our democratic institutions.” Among the issues he raised were expanding voting rights, increasing transparency in government and reversing electoral gerrymandering that’s contributed to increasing polarization in punishment deterrence essay Congress. 9:36 p.m. ET Mr. Obama said democracy is most challenged when people “give in to scaffolding writing, fear,” urging the country to punishment, avoid “a weakening of the values that make us who we are.” “That’s why, for the past eight years, I’ve worked to put the graduate paper, fight against terrorism on a firmer legal footing,” he said. “That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to punishment deterrence essay, close Gitmo, and reform our laws governing surveillance to protect privacy and civil liberties.”
“That’s why I reject discrimination against Muslim Americans,” he continued, to applause. “That’s why we cannot withdraw from big global fights to expand democracy, and human rights, and foundation predoctoral & women’s rights, and LGBT rights no matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem. That’s part of defending America. For the fight against extremism and intolerance and sectarianism and chauvinism are of a piece with the fight against authoritarianism and nationalist aggression.” 9:33 p.m . ET Next, Mr. Obama turned to the issue of terrorism -- both at home and abroad. “Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in uniform, and the intelligence officers, law enforcement, and diplomats who support them, no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on our homeland these past eight years,” he said. “And although Boston and Orlando remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and capital deterrence vigilant than ever. We’ve taken out writing, tens of thousands of terrorists including Osama bin Laden. “The global coalition we’re leading against ISIL has taken out their leaders, and taken away about half their territory,” he continued. “ISIL will be destroyed, and no one who threatens America will ever be safe.” 9:31 p.m. Deterrence Essay. ET Nodding to the issue of climate change -- on which Mr. Trump is a self-described skeptic -- Mr.
Obama said it is scaffolding assignments, essential that the U.S. continue its progress. “In just eight years, we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, doubled our renewable energy, and led the punishment essay, world to an agreement that has the promise to save this planet,” he said. Ford Foundation Dissertation. “But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to punishment, debate the existence of With Young Age, climate change; they’ll be busy dealing with its effects: environmental disasters, economic disruptions, and waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary.” Pretending the problem doesn’t exist “not only essay, betrays future generations, it betrays the essential spirit of this country,” Mr. Obama continued. 9:28 p.m. ET Mr. Obama urged people to find ways to keep from “talking past each other.” “Isn’t that part of what so often makes politics so dispiriting?” he asked. Essay Writing. “How can elected officials rage about deficits when we propose to spend money on preschool for kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for capital deterrence essay corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in our own party, but pounce when the other party does the services, same thing?
“It’s not just dishonest, this selective sorting of the facts; it’s self-defeating,” he continued. “Because as my mom used to capital punishment, tell me, reality has a way of catching up with you.” 9:26 p.m. ET Another threat to American democracy, Mr. Obama said, is people’s collective retreat into essays my room, their own “bubbles.” “The rise of naked partisanship, increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of our media into a channel for every taste all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable,” he said. “And increasingly, we become so secure in capital punishment deterrence essay our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of graduate paper writing services, basing our opinions on the evidence that’s out there.” 9:23 p.m. ET Mr. Obama also spoke about the racial tensions still plaguing the country, which have been put on display in deterrence essay recent months with clashes between the police and the African American community.
“After my election, there was talk of foundation predoctoral & fellowships, a post-racial America,” he said. “Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic. For race remains a potent and often divisive force in our society.” While progress has been made, he continued, “we’re not where we need to punishment, be.” “All of us have more work to do,” Mr. Obama said. “After all, if every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and undeserving minorities, then workers of all shades will be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into descriptive essays my room, their private enclaves.” 9:21 p.m. ET As congressional Republicans debate their options for capital punishment essay repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, Mr. Obama noted the progress that’s been made on health care -- and challenged Republicans to come up with something better. “Health care costs are rising at the slowest rate in fifty years,” he said. “And if anyone can put together a plan that is essay writing kids, demonstrably better than the capital punishment essay, improvements we’ve made to our health care system that covers as many people at less cost I will publicly support it.” 9:19 p.m. ET Mr.
Obama framed his remarks as a look at the “state of our democracy,” outlining the scaffolding writing, challenges the country will face going forward. “A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and the specter of capital punishment deterrence, terrorism these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but they’re testing our democracy as well,” he said. “And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids, and Problems With Marrying at a create good jobs, and protect our homeland.” 9:14 p.m. ET Acknowledging the tradition of a peaceful transition of power, Mr. Obama said he had assured President-elect Donald Trump that there would be a smooth transition.
“In ten days, the world will witness a hallmark of our democracy: the capital punishment deterrence, peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected president to the next,” he said, to boos from the audience. Foundation & Fellowships. “I committed to President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for capital deterrence me.” 9:13 p.m. ET In a nod to his legacy, Mr. Obama said the U.S. is “a better, stronger place” than it was when he took office. “If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of job creation in our historyif I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the yo essay, Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and take out the mastermind of punishment deterrence essay, 9/11if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and graduate paper services secure the deterrence essay, right to ford & fellowships, health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens you might have said our sights were set a little too high,” he said. “But that’s what we did.
That’s what you did.” 9:09 p.m. ET Mr. Obama acknowledged democracy is not always easy, and deterrence essay said progress is sometimes “uneven.” “Yes, our progress has been uneven,” he said. “The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and descriptive essays my room sometimes bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of capital, our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some.” 9:04 p.m ET Mr. Essays About My Room. Obama was met with loud, sustained cheers when he took the punishment deterrence, stage.
After telling the crowd to quiet down -- “we’re on graduate writing services, live TV here, I’ve got to capital punishment essay, move,” he said -- Mr. Obama quipped: “You can tell that I’m a lame duck because nobody’s following instructions.” 9:02 p.m. ET President Obama takes the stage at graduate McCormack Place in Chicago. “Hello Chicago,” he said. “It’s good to be home.” 6:35 p.m. ET When he takes the stage tonight, President Obama will talk about how his youth in Chicago helped show him the way to effect real change in the United States, according to speech excerpts released by the White House. “I first came to punishment deterrence essay, Chicago when I was in my early twenties, still trying to figure out who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life,” he will say. “It was in neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills.
It was on assignments, these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in the face of struggle and loss. “This is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to demand it,” Mr. Punishment Essay. Obama will continue. “After eight years as your President, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the beating heart of scaffolding writing assignments, our American idea our bold experiment in self-government.” 1 p.m.
ET Beginning with George Washington in 1796, it is a time-honored tradition for the President of the United States to give a farewell address. President Obama will continue that tradition on Tuesday when he speaks in Chicago at McCormack Place at deterrence 9 p.m. ET. CBSN coverage of Obama’s farewell speech begins at 7 p.m. Writing Services. ET. According to Mr. Obama’s chief of staff, Dennis McDonough, he chose Chicago because “this is a place where working on the South Side of Chicago and deterrence essay the neighborhoods in paper writing services the shadows of the abandoned steel mills, as a community organizer with people who had been knocked out of jobs that theretofore had been real paths to the middle class, that he recognized that he had a gift for organizing.” His message to Americans, McDonough told CBS News’ Charlie Rose, is to punishment, keep fighting for what you believe in. “He had a gift for ford predoctoral fellowships getting people working together towards the capital deterrence, same goal. And I think that’s what you’ll hear a lot about from the president tomorrow, the importance of sticking together, working together, standing up for what you believe in, and then fighting like hell for it.”
In his eight years in office, President Obama left his mark on many different aspects of American life. Vice President Joe Biden and Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, who was Mr. Essay Writing Kids. Obama’s first White House chief of staff, are among the capital deterrence, Democratic officials who plan to attend. Mr. Obama’s address also has some heavyweight musical talent in scaffolding assignments the lineup -- Pearl Jam lead singer Eddie Vedder will be be performing with Voice of Chicago, according to a tweet. You can watch the speech at capital deterrence essay 9 p.m. on CBSN and CBS, among other broadcast and cable news channels. Bannon: McConnell told Trump to back off Drain the predoctoral & dissertation, Swamp talk.
Steve Bannon tells 60 Minutes that Majority Leader Mitch McConnell told Trump to back off his Drain the Swamp talk -- and says the GOP establishment is trying to capital punishment deterrence, nullify Trump's win. A look at what Melania Trump has done since her husband became president.