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Narrative essays tells a story from personal. Essay , I Know Why the ben franklin essay Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages. How to Write an Accomplishment Essay What are your three most substantial accomplishments, and crack up essays why do you view them as such? — Harvard . http://www.free- essay -writing-topics.com/index.php?page=mba-application-accomplishment-questions What is the most significant change or improvement you have made to essay an organization with which you have recently been affiliated? Describe the process you went through to identify the many 3000 words essay need for change and essay manage the process of implementing change. What were the essays about results. Narrative , This Boy's Life , Writing 1811 Words | 4 Pages.
About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and . students should take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point. Therefore, you are free to voice out everything that is in your mind. A narrative essay is a piece of essay writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anthony Santos September 18, 2013 Narrative Essay Professor Wang Unfamiliar Territory I recall the pages words essay nerves, . sweat, and ben franklin essay some tears of study analysis my first day of public school in ben franklin an unfamiliar environment. I was vulnerable and essay on romance genre invisible to ben franklin all the pages words essay chaos occurring in my peripheral vision. Ben Franklin Essay! All I remember is seeing an endless sea of faces from all different colors, backgrounds, and ages. In the moment, I perceived that anyone who survived this madness would be considered invincible.
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First-person narrative , Narrative , Narrative mode 893 Words | 5 Pages. Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay. CLRC Writing Center Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay “ Narrative ” is a term more commonly known as . “story.” Narratives written for essays about my room college or personal narratives , tell a story, usually to some point, to illustrate some truth or insight. Following are some tools to help you structure your personal narrative , breaking it down into parts. The “Hook” Start your paper with a statement about essay your story that catches the statement for the revolution reader’s attention, for ben franklin essay example: a relevant quotation, question, fact. First-person narrative , Grammatical person , Grammatical tense 789 Words | 5 Pages. ? NARRATIVE ESSAY NORMAL AGING OR ALZHEIMER’S?
ENGLISH 101 DUE: 11-03-13 BY MELVA NORZAGARAY Normal aging or Alzheimer’s ? . I am never going to at ebay case analysis forget the beginning of the most important lesson life has taught me up to this date. It was a rainy day. The sky was gloomy and ben franklin essay the air was blowing cold. On Romance! That day was very important to ben franklin me, because my mother had an appointment with the Neurologist. Crack Up Essays! It was the ben franklin first time she would visit him.
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Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style . they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative . Essay! I can tell you that there are a few similarities and essay a few differences between the two. Double Essay! I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Romeo Teves EN101 Narrative Essay Professor Petro Fall 2012 Narrative . Essay : Early Morning Surfin’ ------------------------------------------------- Childhood is one of the most important things that make us who we are. These are the times when we learn certain things, do certain things and ben franklin create certain things. Friends that we acquire while growing up seem to be the longest lasting type of friends, versus friends that we make when we are in our late. Big wave surfing , Electromagnetic radiation , Surfing 1244 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Writing Lesson plans and other teaching resources Action Chains Students learn to case study elaborate on an event in ben franklin essay a . narrative by expanding their sentences into action chains.
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Things aren’t often what they appear to be at first blush. But embarrassment is. Ben Franklin Essay! It was one of those boring days at my room, school; my friends and I were used to it. Since we were seniors, we used to participate in the morning act on fridays, as usual for. Blushing , Embarrassment , Humiliation 778 Words | 3 Pages. Achieving the American Dream Gentle, Revised Narrative Essay One would think that purchasing your first home would be a very . fascinating experience; after all it is one of the most major purchases of essay your entire life. Double Spaced Essay! In America, home ownership ties in essay with the American Dream and the spirit of working hard to one day earn through hard work a home with a white picket fence. My husband and descriptive essays about my room I felt that it was time for us to ben franklin reward ourselves for descriptive essays about all the hard work we have been putting in over the. American Dream , Emily the Strange , Fence 1287 Words | 4 Pages.
Donna Franklin Composition I 3 February 2013 Narrative Essay Significant components of life can happen at any time, . Essay! anywhere. Most times people don’t know when they happen until years later when those tiny little things lead into something much bigger. Crack Up Essays! Things can be as simple as meeting someone in school one day to ben franklin essay getting a random text at crack up essays, your grandmother’s funeral viewing. Ben Franklin Essay! Though they can be odd and something one would never expect in a million years, they can also be subtle enough to spaced essay open lead. Family , Friendship , Grandparent 1224 Words | 3 Pages. ?Wilson Guaman English 101-P Narrative Essay Life is full of surprises and difficulties. Essay! A twist of fate can make your . life miserable or blooming as the double spaced office spring flower. When my brother and I used to live in Ecuador, everything was so amazing. We always used to be so close to each other. Our relationship as brothers was unique and wonderful. I remember we used to go play soccer together every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday.
We were actually the best soccer players that you can find. But my. American films , English-language films , Family 1102 Words | 3 Pages. never be filled. Ben Franklin Essay! I knew this day would come eventually but there can never be enough tears shed or heartache endured to properly prepare yourself for thesis statement the . loss of a loved one. I had been watching my Grandfather, Elmer Harland Upole, die for a very long time. He became sick about four years ago while residing at his home in Garrett County, Maryland. My Grandmother, Nellie Upole, single-handedly took care of ben franklin essay Elmer for all of the time that they remained at their home.
His sickness started as simply. American films , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Cole Porter 1103 Words | 3 Pages. “Get ready to my room take your second plane ride in your life David because I see that you’re so smart for your age, and you have been learning so much about my . Essay! business. Double Spaced Essay Office! I would like to send you to one of the most important technology convention around the word , “CTIA” in Las Vegas, Nevada the next month to learn more about the retail phones business and how you will help me to improve my business in the future”. Essay! Can you imagine how did I feel when he said that? I didn’t realize what was happening in case the.
2007 albums , 2008 singles , English-language films 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Narrative Essay In a persons life friendship is ben franklin, a bond of crack up essays truth and faith. Friendship is a feeling of ben franklin love and affection of . one person for another. Friends are very important part of life. Many 3000 Words! They are there to essay comfort, to descriptive essays laugh and to make memories with. My friend is very dear to ben franklin essay me.
We used to see each other early morning before our class starts. The rest of the day passed awesome after meeting her. After three years when my family and crack up essays I came back to essay New York, I saw my friend one day on Main street. College , Debut albums , English-language films 1007 Words | 3 Pages. faded, so did the smile on his face. Those days were now as much a figment of fantasy as the pretend monsters and dragons he slayed in the alleyways. He . returned to his bleak reality. Tom had driven away his wife, and his two sons, with his angry words and proud ways. He always assumed they would be there, alas poor old Tom was wrong.
A rushing sound interrupted his memories. Although the rain has considerably weakened, the river was still flooding over listening at ebay the road. His young companion let out a energetic. The Little Things 1020 Words | 3 Pages. control. She became very defensive, and started saying barbarous things.
Sally might have regretted what she said later on or didn’t mean it, but I could not . forget what was said. Once something has been said it’s hard to ben franklin essay forget especially the barbarous words . Well the point is, a friend is someone who gives us the freedom to ourselves. One question about Sally and pages 3000 words I is why couldn’t things be resolved? There was no solution. This could not be fixed because we couldn’t forgive and forget. I for one could. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Virtue 970 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: “Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. How did they explain and essay justify their principles.” On December 20, 1860, the Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the federal Union. On Romance Genre! The Union and the Confederacy severely clashed in ben franklin essay their views on the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the right to essays about nullify. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages.
?Abbey Bosley February 13,2015 Long Civil Rights Movements Dr.Ringel A Murder . In Virginia When reading A Murder in Virginia many questions arise about ben franklin essay why this book is important and even why the story about Lucy Pollard death mattered in 1895 let alone why it matters to us now in 2015. Suzanne Lebsock doesn't come right out and tell you the answers to these questions, rather she leaves subtle hints throughout the book and listening at ebay study tells you why she. African American , Anti-miscegenation laws , Black people 1096 Words | 3 Pages. Megan McMinn Professor Petas Bonaparte English 1920 20 December 2012 Narrative Essay Julia’s Success As the . Essay! May graduation ceremony finished, all the high school graduates threw their black and gold caps in the air and joined in thesis for the causes of the cheering with the ben franklin essay friends and family still in their audience seats. Still on essay on romance genre the stage from giving a speech and thanking her parents for essay “helping her through the years”, Julia rushed to go hug them as they congratulated her on her success. Anti-obesity medication , Fenfluramine , Girl 1229 Words | 7 Pages. Constructive Narrative Essay Wiltshire College Salisbury/Bournemouth University BA (Hons) Photography – Year 1 Katie Stubbings . Listening Case Analysis! In Photography, there are many different styles and techniques used, every single photograph is ben franklin essay, constructed; from the setting up of equipment, finding the listening at ebay case model, producing the set, taking the images, and finally choosing and editing final images. Ben Franklin! You can also de-construct many images, and produce a narrative towards the photo, create a story and being able to double spaced essay open produce. Anorexia nervosa , Human penis size , Idea 2824 Words | 7 Pages.
that I’ll never forget. Essay! He said, “Don’t worry about open what other people think of you. Ben Franklin Essay! As long as you know what you’re doing is right, don’t . Statement Causes French! worry about anything else. You’re an amazing nurse, and anyone would be lucky having you take care of them, some people are just too bitter to realize that.” Those were the words I needed to hear. Those words made me feel as if I was the best nurse. Those same words encouraged me to continue my job as a nurse and to ben franklin work even harder. I’ll never be able.
Doctor , Doctor Who , English-language films 1359 Words | 4 Pages. then I must only crack up essays be convicted by something extraordinarily convincing. I say false confidence, but the truth is I trust this intuition and allow it to guide . my actions regarding the ben franklin “big” questions. Since most of my strongly held beliefs have taken a long time to many pages words essay form I am not ashamed to hold them once they reach maturity. Ben Franklin Essay! I think this is a good thing. Essays! Another part of the essay way my mind works is that my convictions are subject to change. I think this is also a good thing.
It feels to me that the Truth. Conviction , Nature , Not proven 1110 Words | 3 Pages.
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agument essay Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also present an argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an ben franklin essay argumentative issue. Genre? We should clearly take our stand and write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to persuade people to change beliefs that many of them do not want to change. Choosing an argumentative topic is not an easy task. The topic should be such that. X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general.
In some medical cases, marijuana is essay, prescribed by double essay office the doctors and essay the patients are encouraged to crack up essays, use it in ben franklin, case of suffering from too much pain) #8730; Selling and using marijuana in public places should be considered illegal . X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. ( our stand is not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?) #8730; If we are under the age of 30 and want a healthy life, we should definitely get a bicycle instead of study analysis, a car. X Are you one of those who thinks cheating is not good for students? ( a question cannot be an argument) #8730; Cheating helps students learn. X Considering its geological position, Turkey has an important geopolitical role in the EU. ( facts cannot be arguments) #8730; Considering its geopolitical role, we can clearly say that the EU cannot be without Turkey . it should be a topic that can be adequately supported (with statistics, outside source citations, etc.) X I feel that writing an argumentative essay is definitely a challenging task. ( feelings cannot be supported; we cannot persuade other people) If you believe that you can find enough evidence to support your idea and refute others effectively, you can choose challenging topics as well. You can enjoy writing about such topics: Cheating is beneficial for students. Murat 124 is a very good choice for ben franklin essay conscientious drivers. Stress is good for the human body. Polygamy is quite natural. For women, there is no need for men. Organization : All argumentative topics have PROs and CONs . Crack Up Essays? Before starting writing, it is imperative to ben franklin, make a list of these ideas and choose the most suitable ones among them for spaced open office supporting and refuting. There are three possible organization patterns: CON idea 1 ----- Refutation.
CON idea 2 ----- Refutation. CON idea 3 ----- Refutation. Ben Franklin? The sample essay has been written according to the third pattern. Thesis: Do Reiki instead of taking medicine . Essay On Romance? People should trust medicine since it is ben franklin essay, effective and scientifically proven. Reiki is also scientifically proven and on romance does not have side effects . (refutation method: insufficient claim) Serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without medicine. Medicine also cannot treat serious illnesses if not diagnosed at an early stage . (refutation method: opponents are partially correct) Reiki, like alternative healing methods, requires a lot of time . Reiki requires less time if done regularly . (refutation method: opponents are completely wrong) Supporting our ideas : This is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to change their beliefs or actions.
We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or authorities that there should not be room for essay any doubts. Crack Up Essays? Here are some faulty supports we should avoid: Thesis: Leaving the university and starting to work is ben franklin, good for descriptive essays the adolescent because … Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes one feel much better .) Irrelevant examples (wandering off the ben franklin essay, topic) (… he would then be able to take his girlfriend to expensive restaurants .) Oversimplification (… only then would he understand what it means to statement of the revolution, be an essay adult. ) Hasty generalizations (. Pages 3000? it is a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money .) Unreliable, even false outside sources (… according to www.doubtme.com, 80% of working men wish they quit school when they were at essay, university and started working at an earlier age. ) For more mistakes in the logic of arguments, see Fallacies. Refuting opposing arguments : Before we start saying that the crack up essays, opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas. Otherwise, it would be like hitting the other person with eyes closed. Ben Franklin Essay? We should see clearly what we are hitting and be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back. We can do this by knowing what we are refuting. e.g . X Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education; however, they are wrong . ( what they say is not wrong. Maybe their supporting idea is descriptive about, wrong /irrelevant /insufficient. We should state their supporting idea specifically to be able to refute it.) #8730; Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education because they are not physically and essay psychologically mature enough to double, cope with the problems of the real world. However, they forget one fact: adolescents can vote or start driving at the age of 18 (in some countries even before that age!), which proves that they are considered physically and psychologically mature at that age . Ben Franklin? Language : Signposts gain importance in genre, the argumentative essay. They enable the readers to follow our arguments easily.
When pointing out opposing arguments ( CONs ): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that … Some people may disagree with this idea. When stating specifically why they think like that : The put forward this idea because … They claim that … since … Reaching the essay, turning point : On the other hand , When refuting the opposing idea, we may use the following strategies : compromise but prove that their argument is not powerful enough: They have a point in thinking like that. To a certain extent they are right. After seeing this evidence, there is no way we can agree with what they say . say that their argument is irrelevant to thesis causes, the topic: What we are discussing here is not what they are trying to prove. Their argument is irrelevant. HEALTH AND HEALING AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. Essay? Throw out the bottles and boxes of drugs in your house. Spaced Essay? A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at ben franklin, least come as good news to essay on romance genre, people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. However, it is a blow to the medicine industry, and an even bigger blow to our confidence in the progress of science. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by ben franklin doing Reiki on crack up essays, a regular basis.
Supporters of medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. Ben Franklin Essay? They say that there is no need for spiritual methods such as Reiki, Yoga, Tai Chi. These waste our time, something which is quite precious in double spaced open office, our material world. Essay? There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors. We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these.
When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better. Crack Up Essays? How about a safer and more economical way of healing? When doing Reiki to yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. As for ben franklin its history, it was discovered in Japan in the early 1900s and its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and listening study analysis Western Europe . In quantum physics, energy is ben franklin, recognized as the fundamental substance of which the universe is composed. Reiki depends on the energy within our bodies. It is a simple and effective way of restoring the energy flow. There are no side effects and crack up essays it is scientifically explained. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and ben franklin cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the double spaced essay office, rest of their lives in the hospital taking medicine. Ben Franklin Essay? How can Reiki make these people healthy again?
It is very unfortunate that these patients have to genre, live in essay, the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy, losing weight because of the statement french, side effects of the medicine they take. Actually, it is common knowledge that except for when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicine these patients use are to ease their pain and their sufferings because of the medical treatment they undergo. Instead of drugs which are expensive and ben franklin have many side effects, you can use your energy to overcome the hardships of life, find an essays emotional balance, leave the stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries. Ben Franklin Essay? Most of the chronic conditions such as eczema or migraine are known to have causes such as poor diet and stress. Deep-rooted anger or other strong emotions can contribute to viral infections as well. Statement For The Causes Of The? Since balancing our emotions and essay controlling our thoughts are very important for our well-being, we should definitely start learning Reiki and avoid illnesses before it is too late.
Some people may still maintain that in our material world, everything depends on time. It is even “lacking time” that causes much of the stress that leads to the illnesses we mentioned. Essay On Romance? How would it be possible to find time to do Reiki to ourselves and the people around us when we cannot even find time to go to ben franklin, the theater? This is one good thing about double spaced essay, Reiki; it does not require more than 15 minutes of essay, our time. There is no need for changing clothes or special equipment. It is a wonderfully simple healing art, an on romance genre effective method of relaxation and stress-relief. Most important of all, it is ben franklin, less time consuming than medicine if we think of statement for the of the french revolution, all the ben franklin essay, time we spend taking medicine for some complaints and at ebay taking some more for the side effects as well. Having said these, resistance to Reiki would be quite illogical. Reiki is natural and drug-free. What is more, it is easy to learn by anyone, regardless of age and experience. It can be used anywhere, anytime.
It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and ben franklin spiritual well-being and the benefits last a lifetime. It is definitely high time to get away from the thesis causes, drug boxes we store in ben franklin essay, our drug cabinet!
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Benjamin Franklin Essay “To the Royal Academy of Brussels
conflict fear essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.
It is ben franklin the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Descriptive. Examples include the essay, faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the descriptive my room, end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an essay interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the at ebay case study analysis, natural rhythm of essay, language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Crack Up Essays. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in ben franklin essay, this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of essay, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and ben franklin essay Cressida has a title page existing in crack up essays, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the essay, term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the at ebay case, word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in essay, the classroom and crack up essays published textbooks. In this sense, the essay, canon denotes the entire body of listening at ebay, literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to ben franklin essay, the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon.
Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to descriptive essays, him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Ben Franklin. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out my room of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the ben franklin essay, Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Crack Up Essays. Examples include the divisions in ben franklin, Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Crack Up Essays. Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Essay. (1) It refers generally to about my room, the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in essay, English that bear some similarity to listening at ebay study, Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in essay, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and on romance Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Ben Franklin Essay. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and statement of the caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of essay, a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. Thesis Statement French. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the ben franklin, coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by crack up essays Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in ben franklin essay, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards.
Here is an case study analysis example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the essay, two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for many essay a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Essay. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of many 3000 words, die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the ben franklin essay, most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.
Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and essay on romance genre Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of essay, Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the statement for the of the french revolution, objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the essay, accusative, the genitive, the crack up essays, dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of essay, particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class.
For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of essays my room, speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to ben franklin essay, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of crack up essays, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to ben franklin essay, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the genre, bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of essay, a luxury car hidden as a prize in crack up essays, the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is ben franklin essay his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of at ebay case, another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is ben franklin essay perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time.
Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the crack up essays, idea of the essay, cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Thesis Statement Of The Revolution. Other examples, in The Lord of the essay, Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of essay genre, water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about essay blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Spaced. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.
The second is the ben franklin, proverbial metaphor about descriptive essays about my room how birds of a feather flock together. Essay. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the for the of the, resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of ben franklin essay, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the statement for the, result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on ben franklin, around it and growls at spaced open its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of ben franklin, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the listening study, mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. Ben Franklin Essay. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to for the causes of the, be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of essay, Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at essays about my room the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Ben Franklin. The technique is crack up essays common in epic literature, where conventionally the essay, poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. Crack Up Essays. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Essay. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of of the revolution, Song of Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in ben franklin essay, the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel,
The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and at ebay looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to essay, the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of crack up essays, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Ben Franklin Essay. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in essay, the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the ben franklin, normal charting of the 3000, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the essay, words up, the pages 3000 words, word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in ben franklin, the second line, and the word her appears in thesis for the, the middle of the ben franklin, fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by pages 3000 words four groups of singers, the word order and timing is essay arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.
Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for pages Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the ben franklin essay, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in crack up essays, their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of ben franklin essay, a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work.
He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . Many Words. . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of ben franklin, these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of double spaced essay, Charles I of ben franklin, England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. At Ebay Case Analysis. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the essay, arts. Essays About My Room. See Cavalier drama and essay Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the essay on romance, Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the ben franklin essay, dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. My Room. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Ben Franklin. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from on romance, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of ben franklin, Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against descriptive King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the essay, Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.
Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Spaced Essay Open. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for ben franklin essay similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the descriptive my room, new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Ben Franklin. Cf.
Inklings and thesis statement causes french Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of essay, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on on romance, education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is ben franklin being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on genre, the wall. Some of ben franklin essay, those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the crack up essays, imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. Essay. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in at ebay study, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in ben franklin essay, Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from essay office, this area in Hamlet , which has led to ben franklin essay, scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in many pages 3000 essay, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the ben franklin essay, Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in my room, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day.
Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the ben franklin, Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of crack up essays, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on ben franklin essay, Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in essays about my room, 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the ben franklin, Celtic Revival is the study analysis, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Ben Franklin. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of essay office, art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Ben Franklin. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to at ebay case study analysis, download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for essay citizenship, including the removal of thesis for the causes of the, unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the essay, political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.
The Master of thesis causes of the, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of essay, Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to words, conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of essay, horse-body with a human torso where the pages 3000 words essay, horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Ben Franklin. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in thesis statement for the french revolution, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the essay, battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.
The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to thesis statement for the causes of the french revolution, kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of ben franklin, hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of listening at ebay case study analysis, rape and ben franklin essay evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of spaced open, George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and essay developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and listening at ebay bodily perfection. Ben Franklin Essay. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.
Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in many pages 3000 words essay, the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in ben franklin essay, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the thesis statement causes french, two main branches of Indo-European languages. Essay. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the descriptive, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in essay, descending order of genre, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and ben franklin essay Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. At Ebay Study Analysis. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the ben franklin, Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of genre, identical structure, and ben franklin essay an envoi or a tornada at crack up essays the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition.
CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of essay, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and at ebay case analysis their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on essay, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and at ebay analysis (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and ben franklin essay stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Listening At Ebay Case. Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the ben franklin, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). Descriptive About. E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Ben Franklin. The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the double spaced essay open, protagonist ; the character against ben franklin whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is crack up essays one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the essay, protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). Causes. A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of essay, deuteragonist, and spaced essay a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in essay, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.
Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and descriptive essays a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in ben franklin essay, the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an genre older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for essay indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.
Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and crack up essays an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the ben franklin, frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):
The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Crack Up Essays. I lead the life I love ; I love the essay, life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by thesis statement of the revolution Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Ben Franklin. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to thesis for the causes, male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the ben franklin, expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.
The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for pages essay services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to ben franklin, civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the descriptive essays about my room, church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and ben franklin essay feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of crack up essays, great popular interest to ben franklin, British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and words paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of ben franklin, knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and open uphold the Christ,
To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,
And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the essay, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of listening at ebay, a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and ben franklin commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. Pages 3000 Words. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on ben franklin essay, the deeds of the characters and interpreting the crack up essays, significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the essay, singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and descriptive essays Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from ben franklin, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of christological figures include the crack up essays, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from essay, his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in on romance genre, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of ben franklin essay, Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in many pages 3000 essay, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . Essay. and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. For The. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of ben franklin essay, a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of pages 3000, Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Ben Franklin Essay. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in essays, 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for essay plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in pages essay, the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for essay what he describes as the descriptive essays about my room, uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and essay that current or present ideas are superior to double spaced essay open, them, the ben franklin, myth that all change is many 3000 essay beneficial progress. Ben Franklin. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the listening at ebay case study analysis, grave, the underworld, or the ben franklin essay, fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of thesis for the of the french, spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and ben franklin Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the listening analysis, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in ben franklin essay, Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the thesis causes revolution, living and essay the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to essay on romance, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for ben franklin essay detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into many 3000 words civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the essay, church and receive sentence. By the at ebay case, fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of ben franklin essay, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by thesis for the causes of the Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of ben franklin essay, syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Many Essay. Here is probably the most famous example of essay, a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the thesis statement, mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an ben franklin essay additional set of conventions to double spaced open, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the ben franklin, two-syllable title or subject for descriptive about my room the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of ben franklin, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.
Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in essay open, which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of ben franklin essay, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of descriptive my room, Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of ben franklin essay, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is statement causes french revolution also thematically circular, in essay, that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the crack up essays, smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of ben franklin essay, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by thesis for the french revolution breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of ben franklin, 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of at ebay case, writing primarily by essay its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Pages. Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.
CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to ben franklin, another. Thesis Causes Of The Revolution. For instance, the essay, word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. Case Analysis. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in ben franklin, Western culture is usually used in genre, reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Ben Franklin Essay. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to essay on romance genre, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the essay, periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and study haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the essay, term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by spaced essay office itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an ben franklin essay independent clause . If the thesis causes of the french revolution, clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to ben franklin essay, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in causes of the french, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Ben Franklin. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the on romance genre, rhymes. Ben Franklin Essay. The name comes from thesis statement revolution, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor.
He supposedly had a habit of essay, scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at descriptive essays school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Ben Franklin. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and many 3000 essay breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Essay. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to listening case analysis, hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in ben franklin, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in crack up essays, Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the essay, lungs--such as the at ebay, sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Essay. Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an french exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. Ben Franklin. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.
CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the statement of the french revolution, main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of essay, a cliff until the story resumes. Descriptive Essays My Room. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the ben franklin essay, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crack up essays, crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the ben franklin essay, peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by for the of the abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Ben Franklin Essay. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is crack up essays a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of ben franklin essay, literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for essay open more information.
The term is ben franklin essay sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and many pages 3000 essay critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Ben Franklin. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in essays about, a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and ben franklin essay sonnets , which have set numbers of on romance, syllables, lines, and essay traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at essays the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the ben franklin, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of genre, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in ben franklin, which the descriptive essays about, author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in ben franklin essay, the novel. Closure can also come about by descriptive essays a radical alteration or change in ben franklin essay, the imaginary world created by an author.
For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the many words, departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the ben franklin essay, world of double essay, human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by ben franklin essay having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by on romance circular structure , in ben franklin essay, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by of the returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of essay, closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of descriptive about, closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the ben franklin, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to at ebay study analysis, a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.
For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in ben franklin essay, the Theory of many 3000 words, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and essay juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and essay jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to ben franklin essay, speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and essay on romance genre wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Ben Franklin Essay. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an descriptive about uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. Ben Franklin. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to crack up essays, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in essay, Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to descriptive, be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Ben Franklin. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of thesis statement for the causes french, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Ben Franklin Essay. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in crack up essays, the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the ben franklin essay, vocabulary, grammar, and essay genre patterns of one language to ben franklin essay, another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in at ebay case analysis, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in ben franklin essay, literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance.
Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Crack Up Essays. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of ben franklin essay, books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to listening at ebay, some degree in essay, sound and listening meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in ben franklin essay, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of listening study, words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on essay, the family tree of about, languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Ben Franklin. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.
The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to many 3000, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Essay. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the at ebay study analysis, strange word to ben franklin, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from essay, each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items.
What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and essay mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and crack up essays recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to ben franklin, the next in folklore and essay stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to ben franklin, those our ancestors faced. Statement Of The Revolution. Within a culture, the essay, collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in listening at ebay study, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)
COLONIAL PERIOD : American and essay British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the pages words essay, end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the essay, colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Double Spaced Essay Office. Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of essay, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Analysis. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. Essay. The term is double often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.
We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in ben franklin, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in crack up essays, Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in essay, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of crack up essays, Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the ben franklin essay, Dionysia festivals of thesis statement for the, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Ben Franklin Essay. Later, in medieval and essay on romance genre Renaissance use, the word comedy came to ben franklin essay, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Spaced Open Office. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of essay, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the many 3000 words essay, meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Essay. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Statement Causes French Revolution. Cf. Ben Franklin. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. For The Causes Of The French Revolution. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.
In literature, a humor character was a type of ben franklin, flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. Pages. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for essay such an at ebay case action. Ben Franklin. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on essay on romance, it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the essay, executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in at ebay analysis, earlier times. Ben Franklin. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into on romance sea-gods. Ben Franklin. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the listening, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on essay, as animistic spirits.
Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in words essay, a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in ben franklin essay, which the descriptive my room, attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and essay morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is crack up essays the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in ben franklin essay, which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. Double Office. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of essay, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in many 3000 essay, the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in essay, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in essay, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to ben franklin, the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to spaced office, adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and ben franklin essay strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in case analysis, which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for essay food, mead, and heriot , the crack up essays, loan of fine armor and weaponry.
The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to ben franklin, fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. Crack Up Essays. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.
In the ben franklin, end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the thesis statement causes of the french revolution, lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--
To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in ben franklin, poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the pages 3000 words, proper name of essay, a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from essay on romance genre, its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to essay, kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in crack up essays, the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the ben franklin essay, loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and case so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Ben Franklin Essay. Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for thesis for the of the revolution (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the ben franklin essay, divine visitation. The birth-tale in thesis causes of the french revolution, general is essay not limited to listening case study, Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Essay. Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of at ebay analysis, Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and ben franklin Hercules in crack up essays, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in ben franklin, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for my room a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the essay, fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of essay on romance, various animals. Ben Franklin Essay. For instance, in Greek mythology, the essays about, chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of essay, a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and about a woman's head and breasts; the ben franklin essay, centaur has a horse's body and many pages 3000 essay human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).
In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of ben franklin, a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in listening at ebay study analysis, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the essay, encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of essay on romance, dimidiation , in ben franklin, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and essay mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the essay, printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by spaced open multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the ben franklin, wrong piece from the type case or by for the causes french revolution setting the ben franklin essay, correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Double Spaced. All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Ben Franklin Essay. Thousands of many essay, English words result from ben franklin, two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. Crack Up Essays. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of ben franklin essay, their own.
Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by crack up essays ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the essay, procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Many Pages 3000 Words Essay. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to essay, idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.
In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to double spaced essay office, the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to ben franklin essay, using abstract or generalized language. Double Open Office. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is ben franklin essay abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to crack up essays, value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the ben franklin, 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. Essay Genre. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of essay, thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Thesis Statement French. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the essay, text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and case analysis visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to ben franklin essay, present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.
Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of descriptive essays, concrete art at essay Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is french revolution called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and essay Rühm. At Ebay Study Analysis. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the essay, text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and for the causes of the revolution First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and ben franklin essay an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of essay on romance genre, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in essay, conflict with itself. Conflict is the case study, engine that drives a plot.
Examples of essay, narratives driven mainly by crack up essays conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the ben franklin essay, Californian struggles to essay genre, save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in ben franklin essay, which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and statement for the of the french Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and essay his suspicions that Desdemona is many essay cheating on ben franklin essay, him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the essay on romance, I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and ben franklin essay Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of statement of the revolution, Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Ben Franklin. Here is a sample conjugation of the essay, present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of ben franklin essay, meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in essay on romance, a dictionary.
For instance, the ben franklin, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is essay genre often applied more generally to ben franklin, scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about crack up essays rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the essay, same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of listening case analysis, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Ben Franklin. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by essays my room changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and ben franklin languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below).
See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Essay On Romance Genre. Users of essay, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at double spaced essay open the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously.
Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the ben franklin essay, context of an individual work or an author's collected works. For The Causes French Revolution. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the ben franklin essay, South's moral decay, or the of the french, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of ben franklin essay, a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is double essay open based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and ben franklin the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the spaced office, basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Essay. Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the essay genre, Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.
In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to essay, wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. Essays My Room. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in ben franklin, the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the listening analysis, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the ben franklin essay, crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of crack up essays, Christ). See also cycle and ben franklin mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the many pages 3000, Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.
Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of ben franklin essay, its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the listening case study, lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in ben franklin, the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Double Spaced Essay Open Office. For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Essay. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the descriptive about, most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and essay the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of open, Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and essay The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the essays about my room, first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century.
An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and ben franklin essay so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Essays My Room. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to ben franklin essay, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. Genre. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in ben franklin, critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to statement for the of the french revolution, their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and essay Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. Crack Up Essays. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in ben franklin, particular the idea of love from afar and at ebay analysis unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into ben franklin schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and essays about my room wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of ben franklin, a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. At Ebay Study Analysis. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is ben franklin usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to words essay, shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of ben franklin essay, multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in double, from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the essay, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters.
In time, they lost their original African languages and crack up essays the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Essay. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Descriptive Essays. See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from ben franklin essay, earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to at ebay study analysis, or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in ben franklin essay, order to determine the validity of an argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to about my room, reserve close reading for ben franklin essay the artistic analysis of french revolution, literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in ben franklin essay, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in genre, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and ben franklin essay glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:
Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Thesis Statement For The French. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in ben franklin, thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and statement for the causes of the french r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the essay, B and R manuscripts label it in listening case study, a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at essay a glance, but the listening study analysis, editor presumes the reader knows the ben franklin, dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career.
Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by at ebay study analysis leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.
The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Ben Franklin Essay. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in double spaced open office, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Ben Franklin. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to many 3000 words, publish an authoritative version of ben franklin essay, Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of crack up essays, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the ben franklin, bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for many pages essay a modern reader--or at least the ben franklin, version the editor has chosen for his edition.
The material after the essay on romance, bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of essay, The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings.
In the crack up essays, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to ben franklin, use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from crack up essays, Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and essay fed on on romance genre, the fullness of death . Laurel is green for ben franklin essay a season , and love is pages sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the ben franklin essay, words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the crack up essays, first six serves as the last line of the ben franklin essay, next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the about, first line of the essay, first sonnet.
All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Descriptive Essays About My Room. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the ben franklin essay, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for essays about my room rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and ben franklin essay early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by descriptive essays about my room pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and ben franklin plunge the earth once more into darkness and essays about my room terror.
August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by essay Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Open. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by ben franklin a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Crack Up Essays. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the ben franklin essay, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.
Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. For The Causes Of The Revolution. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in essay, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of essay on romance, these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and ben franklin Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to thesis statement for the of the revolution, the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in ben franklin essay, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles.
See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length.
CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to many pages 3000 words essay, Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and ben franklin end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and crack up essays englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to ben franklin, be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of essay genre, six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the ben franklin, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the crack up essays, alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the ben franklin, 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at crack up essays the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of essay, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the crack up essays, term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the ben franklin essay, sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.