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Brotherhood in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; Essay. Since I was a small child, around two years old, I have had the outline, privilege and sometimes the complete terror of being an older brother. This has been a rewarding experience for me, and has given me many learning opportunities and teaching opportunities in purdue university essays my fairly short life. Because of my experience as an underground research paper older brother I was more fully able to understand and appreciate the one word, struggles and railroad research paper outline triumphs that the two brothers in purdue university #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; endured. While I have never personally had to research outline deal with the extreme experiences and essays responsibilities that the narrator dealt with, I can still relate simply as an older brother myself. Throughout the short story I found myself questioning how I would deal with Sonny if he were my brother. Underground Railroad? I finally came to the conclusion that if I had dealt with Sonny, I would have probably handled him in nearly the same way as the narrator did. While I questioned his judgment at times, I feel that the older brother played his role well or at least to the best of is coursework one word his ability. Underground Outline? Regardless of how the narrator dealt with his brother the final outcome is the most important aspect of the story, and it shows that brotherhood is capable of overcoming hardship and misunderstanding because it is so important in regard to human survival and success. The fact that brotherhood prevails over all things is an important theme, and bayaning 3rd world reaction paper one that rings so very true.

The first struggle that the reader is introduced to in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; is the paper, distinct age difference between Sonny and his older brother. #8220;The seven years#8217; difference in our ages lay between us like a chasm. I wondered if these years would ever operate between us as a bridge.#8221; (Baldwin, 44 hereafter referred to as page number only) The so-called #8220;chasm#8221; is the hurdle that must be cleared in the story, and that #8220;clearing of the is coursework, hurdle#8221; is the key to forming a solid, emotional relationship between the brothers. The #8220;bridge#8221; is finally formed when the narrator attends Sonny#8217;s performance at the jazz club. The fact that we get to see the interaction between the two brothers is underground railroad paper important, but even more important is that the reader sees the narrator#8217;s realization of his brother#8217;s talent in the first person. This allows us to feel how deeply it touches the narrator, and for writing a dissertation proposal gives us a perspective of his overflowing of emotion.

#8220;For, while the tale of how we suffer, and how we are delighted, and how we may triumph is never new, it always must be heard. There isn#8217;t any other tale to tell, it#8217;s the only light we#8217;ve got in all this darkness.#8221; (61) This particular passage was very striking to me, because it showed that the narrator finally realized that Sonny had a story too. He realizes that Sonny has suffered, but he has also triumphed many times, and in many ways. The narrator had a blanketing view of Sonny, in which Sonny could never be successful at anything. While Sonny is playing he tells his brother that they are more alike than they know, and that they both have the same story, just with different details. The brothers have finally found a bond, a common thread, and that is one of the most important things that brothers can have. James Baldwin was a writer of his past. He used his personal experiences to more effectively write his detailed and emotional stories and underground railroad research essays. One important aspect to his writing in general, but more specifically in his early stories is poverty stricken Harlem, New York. Baldwin uses personal experiences and opinions to make his characters a part of the Harlem he lived through.

The idea that Harlem is in a vicious cycle of reaction paper essay destroying generation after generation, and the constant desire of railroad outline youth to find a way out are two very important themes in p/psychology 14 #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues.#8221; Harlem is a place that repeats itself over and over, like a scratched record. Yet no one is willing to help the other out. For each generation the research, tragedy of Harlem is reaction paper essay new, for the older people are reluctant to inform the young ones of the condition of the black race (Goldman, 1). The narrator repeatedly observes that nothing has changed across generations, not the buildings or the lives of those who grow up in them#8221; (McBride, 201). The narrator also compares Sonny#8217;s heroin addiction to prison and then compares them both to Harlem, truly showing the dire situation that he and his brother find themselves in. Railroad Research Paper Outline? The restriction and oppression of Harlem is an important element in explaining the stranglehold that is on their lives from the time they are young. It is a theme that I wish Baldwin would have explored more because the environment a child is is coursework placed in is very important to the kind of person they become in life. In some ways I was disappointed with the way in which the narrator dealt with Sonny and his heroin addiction. I found it questionable that he waited until after his daughter#8217;s death to write to Sonny. But at the same time, this provides a great example of his inherent need for his brother in his time of hurt. The narrator was in underground need of Sonny to help him through his tough time, and maybe at one word the same time realized his own failures to railroad paper Sonny when he was struggling himself.

The most important thing that comes from the letter to Sonny was that contact was finally made, which is the reaction paper essay, first and most important step to rekindling the underground railroad research paper outline, brotherhood. While music becomes the integral part of p/psychology essay-direct-14.txt 14 bringing the brothers back together, it had a shaky start as a part of underground railroad paper outline their relationship. Sonny had started playing the 3rd world reaction paper, piano while living at his brother#8217;s in-laws. Underground Railroad Research Paper Outline? He became quite talented but heroin addiction got in his way, and eventually tripped him up. One important conversation the brothers had was after their mother#8217;s funeral, Sonny#8217;s brother notes: #8220;I simply couldn#8217;t see why on earth he#8217;d want to spend his tine hanging around nightclubs, clowning around on camera bandstands, while people pushed each other around a dance floor. (50)#8221; Readers understand how indifferent and ignorant the narrator is in railroad paper outline regard to Sonny#8217;s music. Sonny#8217;s brother dissents with Sonny#8217;s idea of making a living as a musician and fans reviews insists he should finish school first. Finally, Sonny#8217;s frustration explodes, #8220;He slammed the railroad research paper outline, window so hard I thought the application essays, glass would fly out, and underground railroad research turned back to me. #8216;And I#8217;m sick of the stink of these garbage cans! (52)'#8221; The narrator describes the feelings and emotions of this exchange vividly so the is coursework one word, reader understands the strong emotions and disagreement that exists. We see the difference in attitudes about life and music, which deepens the #8220;chasm#8221; between them. This difference leads to the long span of silence and misunderstanding. Underground Outline? The silence is finally broken after the camera essay man movie, narrator#8217;s daughter dies of polio. Sonny#8217;s brother writes him in prison, breaking himself out of his emotional defense towards his brother. #8220;My trouble made his real (55),#8221; states the narrator speaking of his letter and the new contact.

The first step is taken, and from there the relationship starts building new foundations. Finally, after Sonny leaves prison, he comes to visit his brother in Harlem. When Sonny comes home the narrator momentarily feels #8220;that icy dread again#8221; as he watches his brother for signs of drug addiction, hating himself for being so suspicious but unable to prevent it (Bernardo, 1). This begins the road back to a true brotherhood for Sonny and the narrator, despite the questions that Sonny may be asked by his brother and the questionable future he may have. While Sonny is visiting his brother in Harlem, the two brothers take a walk and happen upon a street revival where a group of railroad outline musicians are playing. The brothers stop to listen, and bayaning paper essay the reader is given the suggestion that the brothers seem to come to a realization while listening. Research Paper Outline? While watching, the narrator states that the timeline proposal, music #8220;seemed to underground research paper outline soothe a poison out of them#8221; which suggests his understanding of Sonny#8217;s need for music. This scene then leads to Sonny#8217;s invitation for his brother to timeline for writing a dissertation proposal come watch him play at the jazz club (Goldman, 232). Research Paper Outline? Later that evening when Sonny and his brother arrive at the club the narrator is stricken by the celebrity that Sonny seems to p/psychology essay-direct-14.txt hold at the club. Sonny#8217;s brother notes: #8220;It turned out that everyone at the bar knew Sonny, or almost everyone; there were some musicians, working there, or nearby, or not working, some where simply hangers-on, and some were there to see Sonny play.

I was introduced to all of them, and underground railroad paper they were all very polite to me. Yet it was clear that, for facebook fans reviews, them, I was only Sonny#8217;s brother. Underground Railroad Outline? Here, I was in Sonny#8217;s world. Or rather, his kingdom. University Application Essays? Here it was not even a question that his veins bore royal blood.#8221; (59) This statement alone is telling of the humbling experience Sonny#8217;s brother is underground about to endure. He has finally realized that there is more to Sonny than heroin, piano, and failure. He is buy real fans reviews a successful person and he has a distinct and impressive talent for playing the jazz piano. Finally the music begins, and as Sonny is sitting at his piano, slightly illuminated by an indirect light, the adventure starts for both Sonny and his brother.

The first set is not one in which Sonny triumphs, but in the second, begun with #8220;Am I Blue,#8221; he takes the lead and begins to form a musical creation. He becomes, in the narrators words, #8220;part of the underground railroad research, family again#8221; (61). The family that he joins is questionable, but I believe it is truly both families. He joins the family of jazz players, from whom he has been gone for so long, but he also rejoins his namesake family and reinstates his place with his brother. The set continues, with Sonny expressing himself with wildly flowing statements on his piano. He is dripping with sweat, dripping with the loss of his pent up emotion and his relief of finally getting to play for his brother.

The jazz begins to take on deeper meaning for the brothers, and the life they have led becomes one life, theirs as brothers. They no longer lived as individuals with separate lives and understandings. Purdue Application? They finally reached an understanding of paper outline each other that only brothers could have between themselves. The music is essay man movie simply a vehicle for arriving there. The description Baldwin gives of the musical exchange is a work of railroad outline beauty in itself. It is a statement of the power of the fans, artist as a poet, the power of the musician. The ability to create out of underground railroad outline oneself, to take the chaos of the world especially the world Sonny lives in into the self and represent it as the universal narrative (McBride, 200). The passage would not be nearly as effective if there had only been a simple overview of the scene. P/psychology Essay-direct-14.txt? He brings music and emotion and brotherhood all together in one tight little package, making for one of the most moving scenes in railroad paper outline American literature. The final scene in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; is striking and is dripping with real life emotion.

The idea that one set of blues can bring together two brothers who have not talked in years is amazing, but so very true. The brothers have nothing in common between them apart from the same parents but they are forced through familial obligation to push aside those differences and show compassion and understanding for each other. These are the reaction paper, enduring qualities of brotherhood and they show that no matter how hard a person may try they still are in need of family. This desire within the two brothers brings them together and allows them to truly understand what being a brother is research outline really all about. The differences in the brothers eventually lead to their similarities and that is an amazing thing. Brotherhood transcends time, age, intelligence, failure, success, and p/psychology grief. It is more than a choice and underground research paper outline it is more than an obligation. Brotherhood is carnal and buy real facebook fans reviews never-ending, and #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; captures the underground research, essence of brotherhood beautifully.

University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 1 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Brotherhood in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.

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Wie Kinder ihre „Versuche“ hinzeigen: sie wollen daran lernen, nicht andere damit belehren. aus: Michel de Montaigne, Die Essais. Underground Railroad Research Paper Outline! Dieterich’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Leipzig, 1953, S. Fans Reviews! 132 f. Francis Bacon dagegen, auch er ein frher Verfechter aufklrerischen Denkens, der als Wegbereiter des Empirismus gilt, war eigentlich eher Wissenschaftler und Politiker als Dichter. Underground Research! Der Ausspruch „ wisdom is for writing a dissertation proposal, power“ (Wissen ist Macht) wird ihm zugeschrieben.

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Dies ist so sicher nicht richtig. Underground Railroad Paper Outline! Man denke nur an university essays, die zahlreichen Texte im 18. Underground Research Outline! Jahrhundert, die sich als „Versuch“ ausgeben – nicht zuletzt Schillers Dissertation („Versuch ber den Zusammenhang der thierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen“), oder an is coursework, bekannte Texte des frhen 19. Underground Outline! Jahrhunderts, wie zum Beispiel Kleists „ber die allmhliche Verfertigung der Gedanken beim Reden“ (1811). University! Novalis und Friedrich Schlegel sprechen von Essays, was insofern nur logisch ist, als die essayistische Form sich gut in railroad outline, den fragmentarischen Grundcharakter romantischer Prosa fgt. Statt einer Theorie: der Gang ber die Blumenwiese. „Essay [..]: krzere Prosa-Abhandlung ber einen knstlerischen oder wissenschaftlichen Gegenstand, eine aktuelle Frage des geistigen, kulturellen oder sozialen Lebens u. Timeline For Writing A Dissertation Proposal! . Underground Research Outline! von allgemeinem, fachspezifischem Interesse in reaction paper essay, leicht zugnglicher, doch knstlerisch wie bildungsmig anspruchsvoller, geistreicher Form und anregend lockerem, doch geschliffenem, teils aphoristischem, ironischem, pointiertem und paradoxem Stil von eleganter Leichtigkeit mit einprgsamen, originellen Formulierungen.“ aus: Gero von Wilpert, Artikel „Essay“, in: ders.: Sachwrterbuch der Literatur, Stuttgart 2001, 240-242. Damit sind Aussagen zu Umfang, Inhalt, Form und Stil gemacht und man knnte meinen, jetzt sei die Textsorte hinreichend umrissen.

Doch bei nherem Hinsehen verschwimmen all diese Attribute und unsere Schlerinnen und Schler knnten mit dieser Beschreibung schon gar nichts mehr anfangen. Research Paper Outline! Vergleichen wir damit die Beschreibung des Essays durch Ludwig Rohner, der bereits in is coursework one word, den 60er Jahren einige Standardwerke zum Essay verfasst hat: „Was ist der Essay? Der Begriff lt sich synthetisch aus einigen hundert Beispielen gewinnen. Underground Research! Versuchsweise: der deutsche Essay, eine eigenstndige literarische Gattung, ist ein krzeres, geschlossenes, locker komponiertes Stck betrachtsamer Prosa, das in for writing proposal, sthetisch anspruchsvoller Form einen einzigen, inkom­mensurablen Gegenstand kritisch deutend umspielt, dabei am liebsten reihend, verknpfend, anschauungsbildend verfhrt, den fiktiven Partner im geistigen Gesprch virtuos unterhlt und dessen Bildung, kombinatorisches Denken, Phantasie erlebnishaft einsetzt. aus: Deutsche Essays, Prosa aus zwei Jahrhunderten, hrsg. Railroad Research Paper! von Ludwig Rohner, dtv Textbibliothek 6018, Band 1, 1972, S. Timeline A Dissertation Proposal! 20 ff. Vergleichen wir damit die Umschreibung Reich-Ranickis; auch er geht auf Inhalte und Sprachform ein und nennt schon einige wesentliche Details, die zu einem Essay zu gehren scheinen: Der Essay ist – wie Friedrich Schlegel schrieb – „ein bestndiges Experimentieren“.

Er kritisiert, wenn nicht immer, so doch oft, wenn nicht offen, so doch getarnt die etablierten Anschauungen, die gngigen Urteile und Vorstellungen. Underground Railroad Outline! Und whrend die Abhandlung auf den sthetischen Anspruch keinen sonderlichen Wert legt, ist dem Essay an is coursework, einer knstlerischen Form gelegen, an paper outline, einem persnlichen und womglich temperamentvollen Stil, an is coursework, einprgsamen Formulierungen. Aber vielleicht kommt man dem Essay am nchsten, wenn man ihn metaphorisch umschreibt, statt zu definieren versucht. Research Paper Outline! Dies hat Michael Hamburger geleistet. Essay Man Movie! Er schreibt in underground paper, seinem Essay ber den Essay (1965) Folgendes: Schon das stimmt nicht ganz: ein Essay darf eigentlich nichts behandeln, nichts bestimmen oder definieren. Timeline Proposal! Ein Essay ist ein Spaziergang, ein Lustwandeln, keine Handelsreise. Railroad Paper! Wenn hier also „ber“ steht, kann es nur bedeuten, da der Spaziergang ber das genannte Feld geht, aber ohne jede Absicht, es zu vermessen. P/psychology Essay-direct-14.txt! Dieses Feld wird nicht umgepflgt, auch nicht bebaut. Es soll Wiese bleiben, wild.

Der eine Spaziergnger interessiert sich fr die Blumen, ein anderer fr die Aussicht, ein dritter sucht Insekten. Underground Railroad Outline! Die Jagd nach Schmetterlingen ist er­laubt. Buy Real Fans Reviews! Alles ist erlaubt – auer den Absichten des Vermessers, des Bauern, des Spekulanten. In: Akzente 1965, S. Underground Paper! 290-292 (nach: Verlag 2001, Band III, Fft/M, 1975) Die Metapher des Spaziergangs wird hufig im Zusammenhang mit dem Essay gebraucht und ist auch ein sehr ntzliches Bild. For Writing Proposal! Wir nehmen es als berschrift und tragen die anderen Attribute Reich-Ranickis, Rohners, Wilperts und Montaignes zusammen.

Daraus ergibt sich dann Folgendes: knstle­risch wie bildungsmig anspruchsvoll. locker komponiertes Stck Prosa. knstlerischer oder wissenschaftlicher Gegenstand. aktuelle Frage des geistigen, kulturellen oder sozialen Lebens. umspielt Gegenstand kritisch deutend. kritisiert die etablierten Anschauungen und die gngigen Urteile und Vorstellungen. geschliffen, teils aphoristisch, ironisch, pointiert und paradox. originelle, einprgsame Formulierungen. persnlich und womglich temperamentvoll. selbst lernen, nicht andere belehren.

regt zum Nachdenken an. Damit haben wir freilich nicht alle Bemhungen um eine Definition des Essays abgedeckt, aber gleichwohl die wichtigsten und fr die Schule brauchbarsten Attribute topografisch abgesteckt. Underground Railroad Research Paper Outline! Es versteht sich dabei von selbst, dass nicht jeder Text, der als Essay bezeichnet werden kann, alle die hier genannten Eigenschaften aufweisen soll und kann. University! Aber es wird ein wesentlicher Aspekt deutlich, der m. Underground Railroad Research Paper Outline! E. Is Coursework! sehr dafr spricht, den Essay ab 2014 als Aufgabenform im Abitur zu implementieren: Gedankenspaziergnge, das spielerische Experimentieren mit Ideen und Assoziationen, das Durchwandern imaginrer Landschaften mit Aus- und Umblicken ist ohne eine freiheitlich-kritische Denkhaltung desjenigen, der Essays schreibt, nicht mglich.

J. Paper! S. 14! Ulmer in underground railroad outline, einem unverffentlichten Script, Bad Wildbad, 2010. Und natrlich auch nicht, so knnen wir ergnzen, ohne eine kritische Denkhaltung der Lehrperson, die den Essay unterrichtet. Essay-direct-14.txt 14! Und von daher stellt der Essay – politisch gesprochen – ein willkommenes Bollwerk in underground, den Abiturprfungen der kommenden Jahre dar, wenn es darum geht, sich einer Prfungs-Unkultur zu erwehren, die glaubt, im Stile der DVAs knftig auch im Abitur verfahren zu knnen. Abgrenzung zur Errterung und dem gestaltenden Interpretieren. Die Errterung bemht sich inhaltlich, sprachlich und formal um Sachlichkeit.

Ihr Ziel ist es, Standpunkte darzulegen, Themen zu vertiefen und zu problematisieren. Timeline For Writing A Dissertation! Positionen werden gegeneinander abgewogen, Argumente werden vorgebracht, man will berzeugen – nicht nur bei der dialektischen, sondern auch bei der linearen Errterung. Underground Outline! Die Grundstruktur der Errterung ist, von Sachargumenten ausgehend, zwar persuasiv, ohne dabei jedoch auf einen konkreten Adressaten einzugehen; die Errterung ist nicht adressatenbezogen, sondern selbstreflexiv mit objektivierendem Grundmuster, das heit, der Schreibende, Argumentierende taucht nicht oder allenfalls am Schluss auf. Essay! Die dialektische Errterung ist mit einem Rollenspiel vergleichbar oder mit einem Gerichtsverfahren: Einer leitet in underground railroad research paper, die Thematik ein und fhrt das Verfahren, indem er den gegnerischen Parteien jeweils das Wort erteilt, sprich: die bergnge formuliert. Camera! Dann haben wir eine Pro- und eine Kontra-Seite, die zwar aufeinander Bezug nehmen, aber jeweils mit unterschiedlicher Akzentuierung und immer neuen Aspekten. Research! Und schlielich haben wir den zuhrenden Dritten, der letztlich einer der beiden Parteien den Zuschlag erteilt oder zu einem Kompromiss findet. Camera Man Movie! Dieser kann mit dem einfhrenden Gesprchsleiter identisch sein, es kann sich aber (eben zum Beispiel in underground railroad research paper, einem Rollenspiel) auch um die Zuhrerschaft oder die Presse u. Is Coursework One Word! . Underground Outline! handeln. Buy Real Facebook Reviews! Bei der linearen Errterung und / oder der Texterrterung, die ja linear oder dialektisch sein kann, liegt ebenfalls eine Art Kommunikationssituation vor, nmlich mit dem in paper outline, Frage stehenden Thema, mit dem Verfasser des zugrunde liegenden Textes etc., die aber gleichwohl immer sachlich-neutral bleibt. Dies alles gilt selbstverstndlich nicht fr die so genannte gestaltende Errterung, eine Aufsatz-Zusatzform der letzten Jahre, die von Beginn an is coursework one word, eine Schimre war, ein fachdidaktischer und fachwissenschaftlicher Irrtum, der nicht aus Germanistenkpfen kam, sondern auf ministeriale Vorgaben zurckzufhren ist, die vllig unbeleckt von jeglicher Kenntnis ber das Wesen einer Errterung waren.

Da gab es Leserbriefe zu schreiben oder Abiturreden zu halten – beides Textformen, die sich eben gerade nicht um Sachlichkeit bemhen mssen und die sich eventuell sogar an paper outline, einen ganz konkreten Adressaten richten, um diesen persuasiv und mitunter polemisch auf ihre Seite zu ziehen. 14! Davon also soll hier nicht die Rede sein. Underground Railroad! Die typische Errterung ist dagegen per for writing se multiperspektivisch, denn auch die lineare Errterung bemht sich darum, mglichst viele Facetten eines Themas zu beleuchten und dieses mglichst tief zu durchdringen – und zwar immer auf sachliche, unpersnliche Weise. Ein Weiteres kommt hinzu: Die Errterung sollte zunchst einmal als Lern medium und nicht als Lernziel verstanden werden. Railroad Research Outline! Deshalb wurde sie im Jahr 1984 als Prfungsform eingefhrt, die den Besinnungsaufsatz ablste.

Das Schreiben des Aufsatzes sollte nicht Selbstzweck sein, sondern es geht, auf eine Formel gebracht, letzten Endes zunchst um die Fhigkeit des Errterns , also um gedankliche Strukturen, und erst in university, zweiter Linie um die Fertigkeit, einen Errterungsaufsatz „schulmig zu schreiben. Railroad Outline! berspitzt formuliert: Die Schlerinnen und Schler lernen etwas, indem sie einen Aufsatz schreiben, und nicht primr, wie sie einen Aufsatz schreiben. P/psychology Essay-direct-14.txt 14! Dies wurde leider viel zu oft nicht beachtet und den Schlerinnen und Schlern wurden abstrakte Formalia beigebracht, wie eine schulmige Errterung auszusehen habe. Railroad Research! Die Ergebnisse glichen oft einem leeren Schneckenhaus: viel Form ohne Inhalt, weil die Lernenden sich im Thema zu schlecht auskannten, als dass sie berzeugend htten argumentieren knnen und weil sie von der vorgegebenen Form ausgingen und die ihnen bekannten Inhalte hineinquetschten, anstatt die Form organisch aus der Gegenberstellung von Inhalten erwachsen zu lassen. Demgegenber wurde die gestaltende Interpretation als Aussatzform eingesetzt, um der Tatsache Rechnung zu tragen, dass jeder Leser auf seine Art immer gleichzeitig auch Produzent des Textes ist, liest er doch gewissermaen sich in camera essay, den Text hinein, er deutet diesen nach seinen Mglichkeiten und Fhigkeiten und beurteilt ihn auf dem Hintergrund seines eigenen Weltwissens, seiner Erfahrung und seiner Kenntnisse. Research Paper! Gleichzeitig wurde die gestaltende Interpretation als Ausgleich fr eine bis dato von analytischen Aufgaben dominierten Abiturstruktur verstanden. Purdue University Application Essays! Sie war und ist gedacht als Chance fr jene Schlerinnen und Schler, die zwar Sensibilitt fr Texte beweisen, diese aber nicht in railroad research paper outline, Form eines analytischen Zugriffs und einer zusammenhngenden Interpretation zum Ausdruck bringen knnen, die gleichwohl aber in bayaning 3rd world reaction paper essay, der Gestaltung eines textaffinen Aufsatzes beweisen, dass sie auch tiefer gelegene Strukturen eines Textes erfasst haben.

Beide Elemente, die Errterung wie auch die gestaltende Interpretation, verbindet nun der Essay. Research! Ihm liegt keine festgefgte Struktur zugrunde, wohl aber besitzt er Merkmale, die erfasst sein mssen, und er lsst viel Raum fr gestaltende Elemente formaler, inhaltlicher und sprachlicher Natur. Purdue University Application! Er gibt wie die Errterung ein Thema vor, liefert gleichzeitig dazu aber Materialien, die die Schlerinnen und Schler nutzen knnen, nicht aber nutzen mssen. Underground! Damit ist ausgeschlossen, dass sie ber Dinge schreiben, von denen sie nichts wissen, und der Umgang mit den mitgegebenen Materialien stellt gleichzeitig auch ein Bewertungskriterium fr die Arbeit dar. Qualittskriterien und Korrekturhilfen. Eigentlich vertrgt sich der Essay nicht mit einer Benotungssituation, aber dies gilt in bayaning 3rd world paper, gewisser Weise fr alle Formen nicht-analytischen Schreibens und in underground railroad research paper, letzter Konsequenz auch fr die Errterung, wenn man sie wirklich als Lernmedium und nicht den Errterungsaufsatz als Lernziel versteht. Das Anforderungsprofil des Aufgabentyps IV „Essay - Verfassen eines Essays auf der Grundlage vorgelegter Materialien“ wird wie folgt umschrieben: „Den Schlerinnen und Schlern werden zu einer vorgegebenen Thematik und einer entsprechenden Arbeitsanweisung Materialien zur Verfgung gestellt, die eine Wissensbasis vermitteln. Is Coursework! Bei den Materialien handelt es sich primr um Sachtexte, es knnen auch literarische Texte und Statistiken, Tabellen, Schaubilder, grafische und bildliche Darstellungen sein. Der Essay vereint sachliche und kreative Darstellungsformen – berichtende, errternde, beschreibende sowie schildernde und erzhlende Elemente fgen sich zu einem Ganzen. Research Paper Outline! Der Essay ist nicht mit der Errterung zu verwechseln, auch wenn er sich argumentativer Verfahren bedient. Purdue Essays! Er ist offener angelegt, aspektorientiert, eher gedanklich verzweigt als linear oder dialektisch geprgt.

Sprachlich erfordert der Essay differenzierte Mittel wie etwa Pointen, Metaphern, Klimax, Wortspiele und Ironie.“ aus: Ministerbrief zur Weiterentwicklung der schriftlichen Abiturprfung im Fach Deutsch an underground, allgemein bildenden und beruflichen Gymnasien, vom 16.4.2009. Diese Ausfhrungen beschreiben zwar das Anforderungsprofil eines Essays recht gut, taugen aber wenig als eine im Abiturkontext standardisierbare, fr Lehrer sowie Schler transparente und verstndliche Kriterienliste, die schon whrend des Essayunterrichts Orientierung und Diskussionsgrundlage bieten kann. One Word! Deshalb seien im Folgenden stichwortartig einige Aspekte aufgefhrt, die zwar nicht als fr alle Essays taugliche Checkliste dienen sollen, die aber gleichwohl Anhaltspunkte bieten knnen fr eine kriteriengesttzte Korrektur von Essays: Sind subjektive Perspektiven vorhanden, die reflektiert werden, werden subjektive Erfahrungen und Wertungen mit einbezogen? Wie ist die gedankliche Durchdringung des Themas?

Werden eigenstndige Anstze erkennbar? Ist ein fr den Leser nachvollziehbarer Aufbau vorhanden? Ist eine geordnete Vielfalt zu erkennen? Wird ein Problem / ein Thema klar umrissen? Wie ist der Umgang mit der beigefgten Materialien: Dominieren diese den Essay oder werden sie geschickt integriert? Bleibt der Aufsatz ergebnisoffen und prozesshaft?

Finden sich originelle Einflle und / oder Formulierungen? Entspricht der Aufsatz sprachlich den Konventionen eines Essays? Der Essay am berufsbildenden Gymnasium. Seit dem Abitur 2005 ist der Essay im berufsbildenden Gymnasium Gegenstand der schriftlichen Prfung, nachdem in underground railroad, Zuge der Lehrplanrevision im Jahr 2003 die Forderung nach einem kreativen Element in buy real facebook, der Abiturprfung laut wurde. Railroad Research Paper! Hinzu kam, dass die Prfung als zu literaturlastig empfunden worden war und man deshalb das gestaltende Interpretieren als Aufgabenform ablehnte. Anfangs sah sich das neue Konzept zahlreichen Kritikpunkten ausgesetzt.

Man bemngelte, dass die Schreibform eine berforderung der Schlerinnen und Schler darstelle, dass es schwierig sei, kreatives Schreiben zu unterrichten und zu vermitteln, dass die Korrektur problematisch sei und es Probleme bei der Bewertung der Arbeiten gebe. Mittlerweile stellt sich an a dissertation, den beruflichen Gymnasien die Situation so dar, dass ca. Research Paper Outline! 20 % der Schlerinnen und Schler im Abitur den Essay whlen und dass ca. Reaction Essay! ein Drittel dieser Arbeiten beim Drittkorrektor landet. Railroad Research Paper! Diese Zahlen sind unspektakulr, aber Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, wo die Gefahrenquellen bzw. Essay! Schwachpunkte zahlreicher Arbeiten liegen: Manche Schlerinnen und Schler glauben, es genge, schnoddrig zu schreiben und einen Erlebnisaufsatz abzugeben; andere verfassen eher eine Errterung als einen Essay.

und wieder andere gehen vermeintlich auf Nummer Sicher, reihen Aspekte des Dossiers aneinander und missverstehen damit den Geist eines Essays. Zum Teil sind die Probleme durch den Unterricht hausgemacht. Outline! So hat sich etwa gezeigt, dass es den Kolleginnen und Kollegen mitunter schwerfllt, den Essay zwischen Erlebnisaufsatz und Errterung zu positionieren und dass sie Skrupel haben, Schlerarbeiten in a dissertation proposal, der schulischen Vorbereitungsphase schlecht zu bewerten, weil sie frchten, damit in underground railroad, Erklrungsnot zu geraten – mit der Folge, dass gute Durchschnitte beim Essay den Schlerinnen und Schlern suggerieren, hier sei Beliebigkeit mglich und man erhalte dennoch eine ordentliche Punktzahl. 3rd World Paper! Hinzu kommt, dass die Kolleginnen und Kollegen beklagen, im Unterricht keinen rechten Zugang zum Essay zu bekommen, weil es keine handfesten Regeln und Vorgaben gibt und keinen didaktisch-methodischen Handlauf, an research paper, dem man sich in buy real, der Unterrichtspraxis festhalten knne. Dies alles mag so sein und ist mglicherweise auf das allgemein bildende Gymnasium zu bertragen; und ich bin weit davon entfernt zu glauben, dass mein Referat hier Abhilfe schaffen und den Stein der Weisen vermitteln knne, aber vielleicht nutzen ein paar Erfahrungen aus der Unterrichtspraxis in research outline, einer Erprobungsphase. Der Essay am allgemein bildenden Gymnasium. Im Schuljahr 2007 / 08 wurde beschlossen, neue Aufgabenformate im Abitur einzufhren – unter anderem den Essay.

Hintergrund war zum einen die schon lnger anhaltende Tendenz der Angleichung des allgemein bildenden an timeline for writing a dissertation proposal, die beruflichen Gymnasien, zum andern standen Probleme bei der Themenfindung zur gestaltenden Interpretation Pate sowie die fehlende Akzeptanz der literarischen Errterung ( 2%). Vorgesehen fr die Einfhrung war zunchst 2013, dann aber 2014, weil man sich sagte, dass ein Jahr der Beruhigung nach dem Doppelabitur nicht schaden knne. Research! Die vier Regierungsprsidien baten jeweils einen Fachberater, die spter dann neue Aufgabenform unter Abiturbedingungen zu testen, d.h., sie seris zu unterrichten und dann ber den Stoff eine Klausur zu schreiben, deren Thema zentral vorgegeben war und die ber sechs Stunden ging. Timeline For Writing A Dissertation Proposal! Die Erfahrungen damit waren schriftlich festzuhalten und wurden bei einer separaten Tagung ausgetauscht und abgeglichen. Fr das RP Freiburg habe ich seinerzeit das Thema Essay bernommen und ich kann folgendes Fazit ziehen: Materialvorgabe als Novum, groes Themenspektrum ber viele Jahre, wenig formalisierte Schreibweise baut Schematismen vor, groe Akzeptanz seitens der Schler/innen, unspektakulre Ergebnisse, schneller Lernerfolg. vermeintliche Beliebigkeit des Essays verleitet zur Flchtigkeit,

Schlerinnen und Schler verlieren Details aus den Augen, wenig Reflexion ber pointierte Schreibweise und stilistische Fragen allgemein, z.T. Underground Railroad! Umgangssprache als sprachliche Leichtigkeit missverstanden, Kleben an p/psychology 14, Materialien, „Abhaken“; mangelhaftes Hinterfragen der Materialien, additive Reihung von Aspekten, Anschreiben gegen sich selbst (aber: auch bei Errterung), Ideenlosigkeit fhrt zu frhzeitiger Abgabe der Arbeit bzw. Underground Research Paper! zu knstlichem Verlngern (aber: auch bei Errterung), schwierige Korrektur . Als Konsequenz: Vorarbeiten und Voraussetzungen - Forderungen an bayaning 3rd world paper essay, den Unterricht. Essay sptestens ab Kl. Railroad Research Paper! 10 vorbereiten, Abgrenzung zur Errterung notwendig, Problem der Textauswahl und -krzung, ernste und launige Themen whlen. Mittelweg aus Merkmalitis und Offenheit finden (induktives und deduktives Vorgehen) methodisch beraus anspruchsvoll, wenn auf Methodenvielfalt Wert gelegt wird. Essay verlangt eine freiheitlich-kritische Denkhaltung und gestalterische Selbststndigkeit; Unterrichtsstil ist darauf hin auszurichten.

3.) Mglichkeiten der unterrichtlichen Realisation. Vorbereitende Unterrichtssequenzen – Der Essay zwischen Errterung und kreativem Schreiben. Im Anfang war die Argumentation. Bayaning 3rd World Reaction Essay! In Abkehr vom bis dahin gepflegten „Besinnungsaufsatz“ (Thema z.B: Ist der sonntgliche Spaziergang mit der Familie ein guter Brauch, oder sollte man ihn abschaffen? – Sprachbuch Rahn-Pfleiderer, Klasse 11!) begann seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre ein Curriculum argumentierender und persuasiv ausgelegter Schreib- und Textformen. Research! Es folgt nmlich die dialektische Errterung, dann die lineare, anschlieend die textgebundene Errterung, die linear oder dialektisch sein kann, und schlielich die literarische Errterung. Timeline Proposal! Die gestaltende „Errterung“ lassen wir beiseite, denn das ist keine. Railroad Research! Allein die Unterscheidung all dieser Formen von Errterung fllt nicht nur Schlerinnen und Schlern schwer, denn damit verbunden sind die sattsam bekannten Probleme: - die Unterscheidung von These, Argument und Beispiel, - der Aufbau von Argumentationsketten, - die berleitungen und Gedankenverbindungen, - die textimmanente Kohrenz, - die Gewichtung und der Aufbau der Gedanken, - die Materialsammlung etc. All das ist alles andere als einfach zu unterrichten und es kann inhaltlich wie auch didaktisch-methodisch sehr vieles falsch gemacht werden. Timeline For Writing A Dissertation! Die Errterung ist eine schulmeisterliche Kunstform, die woanders als im Unterricht nicht vorkommt. Research Paper Outline! Sie hat zweifelsohne ihren Wert, dies aber weniger mit Blick auf die Aufsatzart, sondern eher auf die mit ihr verbundenen Denkstrukturen und die Bildung kritischen Bewusstseins (s. Bayaning 3rd World! Ref. Underground Paper! am Vormittag).

Und nun kommt auch noch der Essay dazu. Facebook Reviews! Aus alledem wird schon deutlich, dass der Essay nicht beleuchtet werden kann durch eine Aufnahme in paper outline, dieses Errterungs-Curriculum, denn wir wrden eine Unbekannte mit der andern zu erklren versuchen. Das wiederum bedeutet aber, dass, wenn wir schon frhzeitig mit der Einfhrung in one word, den Essay beginnen wollen (was unbedingt notwendig ist!), wir beide Textgattungen parallel und unabhngig voreinander unterrichten mssen, um anschlieend, wenn die Grundlagen klar sind, eventuell einen Vergleich vornehmen zu knnen – aber dies eben erst, wenn eine Ausgangsbasis besteht. Railroad Paper! (Nebenbei ein Blick nach vorn auf die Unterrichtseinheit, die ich nachher vorstellen werde: Hier konnte ich natrlich nicht auf Vorwissen seitens der Schlerinnen und Schler beim Essay zurckgreifen, musste also beim Vergleich bzw. P/psychology! der Abgrenzung anders vorgehen.) Nun berschneidet sich aber der Essay durchaus im einen oder andern Punkt mit der Errterung, denn auch er kann – muss aber nicht! – argumentativ ausgerichtet sein. Underground Research Paper! Und es gibt Affinitten zu Textformen, die hufig als Hinfhrung zur Errterung verstanden wurden oder die gar im Abitur als gestaltende Errterung auftauchten. Bayaning Reaction! Ich nehme Bezug auf meine Aussage vom Vormittag, wo ich sagte: „Da gab es Leserbriefe zu schreiben oder Abiturreden zu halten – beides Textformen, die sich eben gerade nicht um Sachlichkeit bemhen mssen und die sich eventuell sogar an railroad research, einen ganz konkreten Adressaten richten, um diesen persuasiv und mitunter polemisch auf ihre Seite zu ziehen.“ Der Leserbrief – hufig schon in essay-direct-14.txt 14, Klasse 9 strapaziert – eignet sich bei nherem Hinschauen aber gerade nicht als Vorbung fr die Errterung, selbst wenn er sich in research, noch so vielen Lehrbchern findet, denn er ist eine subjektive Schreibform, in p/psychology essay-direct-14.txt 14, der sich der Verfasser nicht unbedingt um Sachlichkeit und multiperspektivisches Denken bemht. Research Paper Outline! Aber als Hinfhrung zum Essay macht er Sinn, ist sogar geradezu ideal. Buy Real Facebook Fans! Er bringt eine persnliche, subjektive Komponente ins Spiel, richtet sich an railroad outline, einen genannten oder ungenannten Adressaten (den Zeitungsleser), muss sich auf Grund seiner ffentlichkeit (etwa im Unterschied zum Brief) um einen guten Stil und berzeugungskraft bemhen, die Schlerinnen und Schler mssen rezipientenbezogen denken und die Wirkung ihres Texts auf andere in purdue university, Betracht ziehen und werden schlielich ganz nebenbei auch zum Lesen der Tageszeitung veranlasst. Paper! Es bietet sich also geradezu an, den Leserbrief im Rahmen einer Unterrichtseinheit zu Thema „Zeitung“ zu unterrichten, wenn eine Klasse beispielsweise vier Wochen lang die rtliche Tageszeitung erhlt.

Dabei lassen sich auch andere journalistische Schreibformen wie Feuilleton, Glosse etc. P/psychology Essay-direct-14.txt! behandeln und gegeneinander abgrenzen, ohne dass man dies allzu akribisch und ambitioniert angehen sollte. Railroad Research Paper Outline! Ein positiver Nebeneffekt: Die Schlerinnen und Schler mssen nicht, wie bisweilen bei der Errterung, tapfer gegen sich selbst anschreiben (zum Beispiel Lesen vs Neue Medien), worunter hufig die Authentizitt leidet; im Gegenteil: man kann die Lernenden zum Nonkonformismus ermuntern, denn jetzt drfen sie ihre Meinung sagen . Ein weiterer positiver Aspekt der Verbindung aus Essay und Zeitung ist die Mglichkeit der Informationsbeschaffung durch dieses Medium (durchaus neben und zustzlich zur Internet-Recherche) und das Sortieren, Auswhlen, Auswerten und Gliedern der Informationen. Purdue University Application Essays! Dies alles kann bereits in underground outline, Klasse 9 stattfinden (evtl. Camera Man Movie! im zweiten Halbjahr). In Klasse 10 knnte dann die Rede hinzukommen, in paper, der gezielte rhetorische Elemente verwendet werden, um eine bestimmte Wirkung zu erzeugen und die Zuhrerschaft zu berzeugen. Is Coursework! Damit verbunden knnte sein die Sachtextanalyse – zum Beispiel eben fr die Vorbereitung einer Rede, mglich wre auch eine Verbindung mit Prsentationstechniken, wobei hier die Beschftigung mit diskontinuierlichen Texten wie zum Beispiel Tabellen, grafischen Darstellungen oder Statistiken stattfinden knnte. Als Strukturierungshilfen fr eine derartige Rede oder einen Prsentationsvortrag eignet sich eine Mindmap – evtl. Research Paper! gerade auch am PC mit einem entsprechenden Programm und die Schlerinnen und Schler spielen hier erfahrungsgem sehr gerne mit wirkungsvollen Prsentationsschemata, ohne diese bewusst einsetzen zu knnen.

Auch hierbei ist der Deutschunterricht gefragt und es passt durchaus zum Thema Essay-Propdeutik, wenn wir die Schlerinnen und Schler im PC-Raum einen Blick auf gngige Prsentationsprogramme werfen lassen und sie sich unter Anleitung und Beratung (auch gegenseitig) ber die Mglichkeiten eines solchen Programms informieren. Purdue University Essays! Wichtig dabei ist die Funktionalitt der ausgewhlten Prsentationsformen. Underground Paper Outline! Nicht auf Eindruckschinderei kommt es an, sondern darauf, die eigenen Gedanken in p/psychology essay-direct-14.txt, anspruchsvoller Form in underground research, eingngige grafische Darstellungen umzusetzen. In der Kursstufe beginnt schlielich die eigentliche Arbeit am und mit dem Essay. Purdue University! Neu ist hierbei zunchst einmal das Dossier . Research! Dieses kann Hilfe sein, birgt aber auch Fallstricke. Timeline A Dissertation Proposal! Positiv ist auf jeden Fall zu vermerken, dass das Dossier eine alte Schwche der Errterung vermeiden hilft, dass die Schlerinnen und Schler nmlich ber etwas schreiben, von dem sie (zu) wenig Ahnung haben. Underground Railroad Paper Outline! Diesem Missstand wirkt das Dossier zumindest ansatzweise entgegen, indem es Haltepunkte gibt, Denkanste vermittelt, zeigt, wo man ansetzen knnte. University Application Essays! Genau dies ist auch der tiefere Sinn dieser Textbeigaben, nicht etwa die bernahme von Stzen oder gar ganzer Textteile in underground railroad research outline, den Essay.

Dossiertexte haben Impulscharakter. Buy Real Fans! Nichtsdestoweniger lauern hier die Gefahren. Underground Research Paper Outline! Gerade schwchere Schlerinnen und Schler tendieren dazu, auf „Nummer Sicher“ zu gehen und die Materialien abzuarbeiten, und weil es eben ein Essay werden soll, bedienen sie sich eines schnoddrigen Stils mit „coolen“ Ausdrcken. P/psychology! Mit dieser Umsetzung der Vorlagen gert der Essay zum Teil zur errternden Stoffsammlung. Underground Outline! Dem kann man entgegenwirken, indem man die Schlerinnen und Schler abstracts schreiben lsst und sie zwingt, einzelne Aspekte aus dem Materialienpool hchstens in is coursework one word, Form weniger Zitate zu verwenden. Underground Railroad Research! Sehr sinnvoll ist es auch, die Schlerinnen und Schler selbst ein Dossier zu einem bestimmten Thema zusammenstellen zu lassen, das dann gegebenenfalls andere bearbeiten, indem sie dazu einen Essay schreiben, der dann wiederum von den „Themenstellern“ benotet wird. Um zu verhindern, dass die Lernenden sich einzig und allein auf die Materialien des Dossiers verlassen, kann man dieses im Unterricht und gegebenenfalls in 14, der Klausur zeitverzgert ausgeben und die Schlerinnen und Schler zunchst eine eigene Ideensammlung anfertigen lassen. Auch diese Ideensammlung kann vorbereitet werden, indem man zum Beispiel die Methode des Clusterings einfhrt. Railroad Research! Diese „Ideentraube“ dient als Darstellungsform fr assoziative Gedanken, wohingegen eine Mindmap als mnemotechnisches Instrument versucht, Dinge rational zu strukturieren.

Besser als eine Mindmap eignen sich also fr Ideensammlungen beliebige grafische Darstellungen – oder eben das Cluster. Fr die Abiturprfung kann man die Schlerinnen und Schler anhalten, ebenfalls so zu verfahren, dass sie sich zunchst selbst Gedanken zum Thema machen und erst dann zu den Materialien greifen und mit diesen ihre eigenen Notizen ergnzen. P/psychology! Damit ist sichergestellt, dass sie sich nicht zu stark auf das Dossier sttzen. Sind diese Vorarbeiten gettigt, geht es darum, den gedanklichen Aufbau eines Essays zu erschlieen und zu ben. Paper! Altbekannte Methoden des „verzgerten Lesens“, spter in one word, leicht erweiterter Form eher bekannt als „handlungs- und produktionsorientierter Unterricht“ (vgl. Underground Railroad Research! Der Deutschunterricht, Heft 2 / 81) erweisen sich hier als beraus ntzlich: das Weiterschreiben, das Sortieren von Abstzen und der Lckentext. Timeline! Wir betrachten das am Beispiel der Materialien zum Thema „Literatur in underground railroad research outline, der Schule“ (Mat. P/psychology! teil, S. Underground Railroad Paper! 8-10). Is Coursework One Word! Hier haben wir lauter Texte aus den 70er und 80er Jahren, unter anderem einen hchst interessanten Essay von Hans Magnus Enzensberger („Ein bescheidener Vorschlag zum Schutz der Jugend …). Underground Research Paper! Dieser umfasst in essay-direct-14.txt, der Originalfassung 17 Seiten und ist eine regelrechte Fundgrube fr das Thema „Essay“. Nun ist der vorliegende Textausschnitt natrlich stark gekrzt und es bieten sich jetzt methodisch mehrere Mglichkeiten an underground research outline, (die im brigen auch auf andere Texte anwendbar sind): Wir knnen die gekrzten Stellen (die brigens nicht sinnvoll gekrzt werden mssen!) durch die Schlerinnen und Schler ergnzen lassen.

Die Aufgabe erfordert logisches Denken und ein tiefes Eindringen in timeline, den Text und in railroad paper outline, die angesprochenen Zusammenhnge. One Word! Wir knnen dabei beispielsweise durch ein grau unterlegtes Feld deutlich machen, wie viel „Zwischentext“ wir ungefhr erwarten. Railroad Outline! Nachdem einige Schlerversionen besprochen wurden, wird der ausgelassene Textteil nachgeliefert und die Schlerinnen und Schler vergleichen ihre Ergnzungen mit dem Original – wodurch wiederum sichergestellt ist, dass auch dieser Textausschnitt aufmerksam gelesen wird. In unserem vorliegenden Fall „Literatur in is coursework one word, der Schule“ erffnet sich noch eine weitere Mglichkeit: Die Zusatztexte von Grass, Rhmkorf und Susan Sontag gehen alle in research paper, eine hnliche Richtung. Purdue University! Was also spricht dagegen, diese in underground research, Enzensbergers Text zu implementieren: An welcher Stelle wrden sie passen? Wo gibt es evtl. One Word! logische Brche? Wie knnten diese sprachlich und inhaltlich ausgemerzt werden? – Auch hier empfiehlt sich die Arbeit am PC und dabei das Abspeichern verschiedener Versionen und das Experimentieren mit Textbausteinen und Sprache. Underground Research Paper! Auch ein Blick auf die Stilebenen ist dabei angebracht: Wo gibt es zum Beispiel in reviews, dieser Hinsicht Brche? Passt Rhmkorfs Begriff „Arschpauker der Poesie“ zur Sprache Enzensbergers oder Grass‘? – Darber kann man kontrovers diskutieren. Noch fr einige weitere methodische Mglichkeiten bietet sich die Arbeit am PC an, so zum Beispiel, wenn wir einen Text in railroad paper, Abstzen ausgeben, die durcheinander gewrfelt sind. Is Coursework! Diese Vorgehensweise empfiehlt sich beispielsweise bei Brechts Text Betrachtung der Kunst und Kunst der Betrachtung – Reflexionen ber die Portrtkunst in paper outline, der Bildhauerei (1939).

Wir geben diesen Text in camera essay, vllig vernderter Form aus und lassen ihn durch die Schlerinnen und Schler in underground railroad research paper outline, eine in essay man movie, sich logische Form bringen (Tastenkombination Alt-Hoch-Pfeiltasten). Paper Outline! Wenn dies gemacht ist, knnen wir die Arbeit der einzelnen im Tauschverzeichnis verffentlichen und durch andere bewerten und kommentieren lassen. Wir knnen schlielich den greren Mittelteil eines Essays ausgeben und Anfang und Schluss ergnzen lassen, womit wir gezielt ben, wie man am Anfang die Aufmerksamkeit des Lesers bindet und am Schluss die Klammer zum Anfang schliet und evtl. Essay Man Movie! mit einer Pointe endet. In Sprachuntersuchungen knnen wir pointierte Formulierungen extrahieren und / oder die verwendeten Redefiguren und Stilmittel bestimmen. Paper Outline! Zwar sollten die Schlerinnen und Schler nicht dem Irrtum verfallen, man msse nun mglichst viele verschiedene Redefiguren unterbringen, aber die Kenntnis einiger rhetorischer Mittel wie der Metapher, der Ellipse, des Euphemismus oder der Hyperbel ist notwendig, um einen Text analysieren und seine sprachlichen Mittel und deren Wirkung in p/psychology essay-direct-14.txt 14, ein Beziehungsgeflecht setzen zu knnen. Railroad Outline! Nur wer wei, was es fr rhetorische Mglichkeiten gibt, kann diese anwenden.

Einen Essay zu schreiben lernt man – dies hrt sich wie eine Binsenweisheit an facebook reviews, – nur durch Schreiben. Railroad Outline! Unabdingbar sind also zeitintensive Inhalte wie Schreibwerkstatt, Schreibkonferenzen, Stufen- oder klasseninterne Korrektur-workshops etc. Application Essays! Der Essay ist weniger als andere Abiturinhalte durch ein starres Unterrichtsschema zu unterrichten, sondern verlangt viel Eigeninitiative von den Schlerinnen und Schlern und Flexibilitt seitens der Lehrkrfte. Vereinfacht wird das Schreiben eines Essays, wenn man die Schlerinnen und Schler von vornherein ermuntert, in underground research outline, der Ich-Form zu schreiben, dabei zwar assoziativ vorzugehen, aber stringent zu bleiben und – auch eigentlich eine Plattitde! – auf einen passenden Titel des Essays zu achten. P/psychology 14! Dieser schildert die Arbeit aus, gibt eine Richtung vor, bndelt die Gedanken. Research Paper! Daneben ist bei den Schreibbungen zu beachten, dass das Exemplarische den Vorzug vor der ausufernden Vollstndigkeit erhlt.

Als Faustregel sollten die Schlerinnen und Schler Folgendes beachten: - Nominalstil und Passiv-Konstruktionen klingen oft brokratisch. -Ein Satz, der lnger als drei Zeilen ist, kann in buy real facebook, den meisten Fllen aufgeteilt werden; Schachtelstze sind zu vermeiden. - Abtnungspartikel wie „ja“, „eben“, „gerade“ sind oft Ausdruck von Allgemeinpltzen und knnen weggelassen oder durch przisere Ausdrcke ersetzt werden. - Einklammerungen sollten unterbleiben. Die Planungsphase eines Abituraufsatzes zum Essay darf und muss entsprechend lang sein, der Umfang des Essays ist nicht das Entscheidende. Mit Blick auf die Probleme, die das gestaltende Interpretieren und die gestaltende Errterung gemacht haben und in underground railroad research, Anbetracht dessen, dass die literarische Errterung immer nur von weniger als 2 % der Schlerinnen und Schler gewhlt wurde, erscheint die neue Form des Essays durchaus ein Gewinn – nicht zuletzt auch deshalb, weil auch beim gestaltenden Interpretieren und der Errterung zum Teil erhebliche Abweichungen zwischen Erst- und Zweitkorrektur zu verzeichnen waren. Man Movie! Der Essay wird viel Ungewohntes bringen:

Das Scheitern, Abbrechen, Umdenken als unverzichtbare und lehrreiche Begleiterscheinungen von Lernprozessen werden immer noch zu oft als peinliche und daher zu umgehende Sackgassen betrachtet. Underground Outline! Ergebnis- bzw. Facebook Fans Reviews! Produktorientierung, Benotbarkeit und das starre Festhalten an paper, hergebrachten Leistungsmustern stehen einer allgemein notwendigen Flexibilisierung des Deutschunterrichts nicht selten im Wege. ( zit. For Writing A Dissertation Proposal! aus einem unverffentlichten Vortrag von Dr. Underground Research Paper! J. Buy Real Reviews! Ulmer am 26.7.2010 in underground research outline, Bad Wildbad)

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Essay on underground City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of one word, government.

Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is underground railroad paper a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of timeline for writing, society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the underground railroad paper urban life. In rural community the force of bayaning paper essay, traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to underground railroad research paper outline, Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the bayaning reaction paper essay folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of railroad, group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the reaction essay city prevails in village life.

The type of village family is generally patriarchal in underground research, which the buy real status of the individual is the underground status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages.

Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is facebook fans merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection.

For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is railroad outline conspicuous by the absence of p/psychology essay-direct-14.txt 14, family life. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the railroad activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and facebook fans reviews otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by underground the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the a dissertation urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated.

Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in railroad paper, a city as opposed to for writing a dissertation, the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of underground railroad outline, control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of timeline for writing, each other.

In the village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and underground research outline attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other.

Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the a dissertation people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an underground railroad research paper outline atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Buy Real Fans? Even friend are likely to underground railroad outline, be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Essays? Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of research outline, living is lower than that of the town because the one word means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation.

When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of underground railroad paper outline, living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds.

Indeed the distinction between public and fans reviews private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only research outline, a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the is coursework semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in underground, the urban world is clearly in bayaning 3rd world reaction essay, the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of railroad research, organisations, economic and social.

The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Camera Essay? Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in railroad outline, terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each.

It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on for writing proposal achievement rather than the ascription of status.

The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. The caste element in social stratification is underground outline minimized. Status centres on reaction paper essay the occupation, on the nature and competence of the research paper outline activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and application the urban community to boiling water in a kettle.

Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the research typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to one word, a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of underground research paper outline, transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women.

If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and timeline a dissertation liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and underground railroad paper outline will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the fans qualities which stand in railroad paper outline, sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. A Dissertation? The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. Underground Research? He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains.

The forces of nature are beyond his control and 3rd world reaction paper essay reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. Underground Outline? The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by impersonality of timeline for writing proposal, law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies.

In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the paper outline neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is essay man movie a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the underground railroad outline individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from purdue university essays, his village surroundings sheds tears from underground railroad outline, his eyes.

Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the paper essay city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life. In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in paper, the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to camera, the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out underground railroad outline, that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the essay man movie rural way of life has been withering away. The more the underground railroad research villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the application essays faster will be the urban influence on underground railroad paper the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the buy real rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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