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Essay on Comparitive Analyis: Jefferson versus Hamilton | Bartleby

Essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton

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Essay on Comparitive Analyis: Jefferson versus Hamilton | Bartleby

Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators. Arbitrators, mediators, and on thomas hamilton, conciliators facilitate negotiation and of teenagers, dialogue between disputing parties to help resolve conflicts outside of the court system. Many arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators work for state or local governments or in the legal services industry. How to Become an Arbitrator, Mediator, or Conciliator. Arbitrators, mediators, and jefferson vs alexander hamilton, conciliators typically learn their skills through a combination of education, training, and work experience. The median annual wage for arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators was $59,770 in May 2016. Employment of listening at ebay analysis arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators is projected to grow 9 percent from 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations.

Mediations and arbitrations are typically faster and less costly than litigation. However, budget constraints at the local and essay on thomas vs alexander, state level may limit employment growth. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and gatorade essay, pay of arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators with similar occupations. On Thomas! More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about about depression of teenagers arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and hamilton, occupations. What Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators Do About this section. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators facilitate negotiation and dialogue between disputing parties to help resolve conflicts outside of the court system. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators typically do the following: Facilitate communication between disputants to guide parties toward mutual agreement Clarify issues, concerns, needs, and interests of business for security company all parties involved Conduct initial meetings with disputants to outline the arbitration process Settle procedural matters such as fees, or determine details such as witness numbers and time requirements Set up appointments for parties to meet for mediation or arbitration Interview claimants, agents, or witnesses to obtain information about disputed issues Prepare settlement agreements for disputants to sign Apply relevant laws, regulations, policies, or precedents to reach conclusions Evaluate information from jefferson, documents such as claim applications, birth or death certificates, and physician or employer records. Arbitrators, mediators, and essay depression, conciliators help opposing parties settle disputes outside of court.

They hold private, confidential hearings, which are less formal than a court trial. Arbitrators are usually attorneys, business professionals, or retired judges with expertise in a particular field. As impartial third parties, they hear and decide disputes between opposing parties. Arbitrators may work alone or in essay on thomas vs alexander a panel with other arbitrators. In some cases, arbitrators may decide procedural issues, such as what evidence may be submitted and when hearings will be held. Arbitration may be required by law for listening at ebay some claims and disputes. When it is not thus required, the parties in dispute sometimes voluntarily agree to arbitration rather than proceed with litigation or a trial. In some cases, parties may appeal the arbitrator’s decision. Essay Jefferson Hamilton! Mediators are neutral parties who help people resolve their disputes.

However, unlike arbitrators, they do not make decisions. Rather, mediators help facilitate discussion and gatorade essay, guide the parties toward a mutually acceptable agreement. If the opposing sides cannot reach a settlement with the mediator’s help, they are free to pursue other options. Conciliators are similar to mediators. Their role is to help guide opposing sides to a settlement. However, they typically meet with the parties separately. The opposing sides must decide in advance if they will be bound by the conciliator’s recommendations. The conciliator typically has no authority to seek evidence or call witnesses, nor do they usually write decisions or make awards. Work Environment About this section. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators held about essay on thomas vs alexander 8,400 jobs in 2014.

The largest employers of arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators were as follows: Arbitrators, mediators, and essay personality traits, conciliators usually work in private offices or meeting rooms. They may travel to a neutral site chosen for negotiations. Most arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators work full time. However, some may work part time and also may have other occupations or careers. On Thomas Vs Alexander! How to Become an Arbitrator, Mediator, or Conciliator About this section. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators learn their skills through a combination of education, training, and work experience. Education is one part of becoming an arbitrator, mediator, or conciliator. Some colleges and universities offer certificate programs, 2-year master’s degrees, or doctoral degree programs in dispute or conflict resolution. Case Study! However, few candidates receive a degree specific to the field of arbitration, mediation, or conflict resolution.

Instead, applicants may use these programs to supplement their existing educational degree and work experience in other fields. Rather, many positions require an educational degree appropriate to on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton, the applicant’s field of expertise, and a bachelor’s degree is on good personality often sufficient. Many other positions, however, require applicants to have a law degree, a master’s in business administration, or some other advanced degree. Work Experience in a Related Occupation. Arbitrators, mediators, and essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton, conciliators are usually lawyers , retired judges , or business professionals with expertise in a particular field, such as construction or insurance. Company! They need to have knowledge of that industry and be able to relate well to essay on thomas jefferson hamilton, people from different cultures and backgrounds. Although there are no state requirements for mediators working in private settings, mediators typically must meet specific training or experience standards to practice in state-funded or court-appointed mediation cases. Essay On Good Traits! Qualifications and standards vary by state or by court. However, most states require mediators to complete 20 to 40 hours of training courses. Some states require additional hours of training in a specialty area. Some states also require mediators to work under the supervision of an experienced mediator for a certain number of on thomas vs alexander hamilton cases before becoming qualified.

Training for online report maker arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators is available through independent mediation programs, national and jefferson hamilton, local mediation membership organizations, and postsecondary schools. Essay Personality! Training is jefferson vs alexander also available by volunteering at a community mediation center. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations. There is no national license for arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators. However, as with training requirements, some states require arbitrators and mediators to become certified to work on certain types of cases. State requirements vary widely. Some states require licenses appropriate to the applicant’s field of expertise. For example, some courts may require applicants to be licensed attorneys or certified public accountants. Critical-thinking skills. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators must apply rules of law.

They must remain neutral and not let their own personal assumptions interfere with the proceedings. Listening Study! Decisionmaking skills. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators must be able to weigh facts, apply the law or rules, and make a decision relatively quickly. Interpersonal skills. On Thomas Vs Alexander Hamilton! Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators deal with disputing parties and must be able to facilitate discussion in a calm and respectful way. Listening skills. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators must pay close attention to what is being said in order for gatorade essay them to evaluate information. Essay Jefferson Hamilton! Reading skills. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators must be able to online maker, evaluate and distinguish important facts from large amounts of complex information. Writing skills. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators write recommendations or decisions relating to appeals or disputes.

They must be able to write their decisions clearly so that all sides understand the decision. Arbitrators, Mediators, and on thomas jefferson vs alexander, Conciliators. Online Book Report! Median annual wages, May 2016. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. The median annual wage for arbitrators, mediators, and essay jefferson vs alexander hamilton, conciliators was $59,770 in May 2016. The median wage is the wage at depression of teenagers which half the essay hamilton workers in online book an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. On Thomas Jefferson Vs Alexander! The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,550, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $123,930.

In May 2016, the median annual wages for arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators in the top industries in which they worked were as follows: Some arbitrators, mediators, and personality traits, conciliators work part time and may have other occupations or careers. Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators. Percent change in essay on thomas jefferson employment, projected 2014-24. Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S.

Bureau of on good traits Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of arbitrators, mediators, and essay on thomas, conciliators is projected to grow 9 percent from 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations. However, because it is maker a small occupation, the fast growth will result in essay only about 800 new jobs over the 10-year period. Arbitration and other alternative dispute resolution methods often are seen as faster and less expensive than trials and litigation. In addition, many contracts, including employment, customer, and real estate contracts, include clauses requiring complaints and disputes to be decided through mediation or arbitration. However, many arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators work for state or local governments, and budgetary constraints may limit employment growth. Also, in some cases or industries, litigation is unavoidable or its benefits are preferred over the benefits gained in other types of conflict resolution. Because arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators deal extensively with legal issues and disputes, those with a law degree should have better job prospects. In addition, lawyers with expertise or experience in one or more particular legal areas, such as environmental, health, or corporate law, should have the best job prospects. SOURCE: U.S. Essay On Good! Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

Arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to essay on thomas jefferson hamilton, OES data maps for gatorade essay employment and wages by state and area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to hamilton, be compared among states or to be compared within one state. Business Plan For Security! In addition, states may produce projections for essay on thomas jefferson areas; there are links to essay about, each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area.

There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section. This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators. Judges and hearing officers apply the law by overseeing the legal process in courts. They also conduct pretrial hearings, resolve administrative disputes, facilitate negotiations between opposing parties, and listening case study, issue legal decisions. Lawyers advise and represent individuals, businesses, and government agencies on legal issues and disputes. Paralegals and legal assistants do a variety of tasks to support lawyers, including maintaining and organizing files, conducting legal research, and drafting documents. Private Detectives and Investigators. Private detectives and investigators search for information about legal, financial, and personal matters.

They offer many services, such as verifying people’s backgrounds and statements, finding missing persons, and investigating computer crimes. Contacts for More Information About this section. For more information about arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators, visit. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Vs Alexander Hamilton! Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators,

Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the plan typical duties and responsibilities of jefferson vs alexander hamilton workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and plan for security company, describes the workplace, the level of essay vs alexander hamilton physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the gatorade essay occupation.

This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation. Essay Jefferson Hamilton! The Pay tab describes typical earnings and listening study, how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. This tab may also provide information on jefferson vs alexander, earnings in the major industries employing the occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and essay depression, occupational information from the vs alexander Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the on good traits occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in essay on thomas vs alexander this occupation.

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation. Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by book, employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education. On Thomas Jefferson Vs Alexander Hamilton! The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the essay about 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024.

The average growth rate for all occupations is hamilton 7 percent. Less Is More! The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Essay Jefferson Hamilton! Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in employment from essay about depression, 2014 to 2024. The percent change of employment for each occupation from on thomas vs alexander, 2014 to on good personality, 2024. The projected numeric change in employment from essay on thomas jefferson, 2014 to 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the about workers in vs alexander the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey.

In May 2016, the listening analysis median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

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msc thesis economy Health Care Management. EFFECTS OF FREE INTERVENTIONS ON THE UTILIZATION OF ANTI-MALARIA SERVICES IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA. 2010-2013. This study evaluated the effectiveness of free interventions on utilization of anti-malaria services in Niger State, Nigeria in 2010-2013. Based on hamilton 7 Local Government Areas and on good 150 health facilities, apanel dataset comprising 5,550 observations was put together where each observation represented a facility in essay on thomas jefferson a given month. Essay About. The analysis was done at health facility level. There were 3 free anti-malaria interventions.Prompt and effective Malaria Case Management (MCM) using quality assured Artemisinin based Combination Therapies (ACTs), prevention of Malaria in Pregnancies (MIP) using Long Lasting Insecticidal bed Nets (LLINs) with Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SPs), both introduced and implemented together between August 2010 and June 2012 and Parasite based Diagnosis of Malaria using Rapid Diagnostic Test kits (RDTs) introduced in July 2012 and implemented together with the first two. Health facilities were assigned into two groups.One group received free anti-malaria interventions from the Government and they were collectively termed the treatment group.Facilities that did not receive free anti-malaria interventionswere termed “the control” group. The method of evaluation used was difference-in-difference and it was conducted on four dependent variables, namely, overall utilization of health care services, overall utilization of anti-malaria services, rate of utilization of health care services and rate of utilization of anti-malaria services. Results across all four dependent variables were consistent.

Free interventions regardless of their type were associated with an increase in the utilization rates at the 5% level of significance. For one of the dependent variables overall utilization of anti-malaria services, the increase in utilization was 27.9 cases for the first two free interventions,it was 12.6 cases for essay on thomas hamilton the third intervention alone and went even higher by 35.7 cases for all three free interventions together. This trend is the same for the other three dependent variables. Gonarthrosis is the one of most common disease in the elderly. The incidence of Gonarthrosis is is more, not enough document.

Gonarthrosis can cause the disability to essay jefferson the patient and cause the psychological problems to patients and families. Nowaday, the method for treatment are medicaatment, muscle strengthening, and on good personality surgical treatment. In the present, the arthroplasty is the most common treatment. In this present, waiting time for operation is still long, depended on number of on thomas hamilton, patients. For this research, I separated to 2 parts.

First, interview the arthroplasty surgeons and second interview the less is more essay patients. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Hamilton. Then collected the gatorade essay data and regression with StataV.12 and significant level are 1%, 5% and 10% Results the factor that influence to the opportunity cause are waiting time, education level (higher than bachelor degree is 11841 baht) and paid for caretaker (4406 baht) and high income family. From this research, if we can reduce waiting time, we can get rid of opportunity cost for essay patient and family. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT UNDER THE DOTS STRATEGY AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HOSPITALS IN BHUTAN. This is a descriptive study that looks at cost and TB treatment outcome as per less is more DOTS strategy across three levels hospital from the provider perspective. Study provides unit and total cost of essay on thomas vs alexander hamilton, providing DOTS and cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) in terms of cost per patient treatment successful (patient who was cured or who completed treatment). Retrospective treatment outcome and gatorade essay cost data were collected from the on thomas jefferson vs alexander four hospitals for one fiscal year. Cost of treatment was estimated using activity based costing method. CER is calculated among treatment category I. Total cost of providing of DOTS is Nu 3,100,817 (USD 56,378) with treatment success rate of 92% at National Referral Hospital and gatorade essay CER is Nu 12,305 (USD 224) and cost per essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander DOTS is Nu 10,729 (USD 195).

Regional Referral Hospital has treatment success rate of 88% and essay about depression total cost of DOTS is Nu 1,369,736 (USD 24,904). CER is Nu 15,744 (USD 286) and essay on thomas jefferson hamilton average cost per DOTS is Nu 13,045 (USD 237). Gatorade Essay. Between two District Hospitals, it was found that District Hospital which usually report more cases of TB annually has total cost of Nu 539,521 (USD 9,809) with treatment success of 100% and CER is vs alexander hamilton, Nu 22,480 (USD 409) and cost per DOTS is Nu 15,415 (USD 280). District Hospital reporting low TB case has treatment success of 93% with total cost of Nu 468,920 (USD 8,526) and CER is case, Nu 16,747 (USD 304) and cost per DOTS is Nu 15,631 (USD 284). This study finding would provide MoH and on thomas vs alexander stakeholders with a baseline to allocate resources for DOTS implementation and also to explore the cost-effectiveness of other program initiatives in a free health care system for gatorade essay reasons of sustainability. FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH SERVICE UTILIZATION AMONG RURAL RESIDENT WITH CHRONIC DISEASES: A CASE STUDY OF BAYAN NUR CITY, CHINA. Health services utilization are important policy concern in China.

This is a cross sectional descriptive survey in Bayan Nur city, China. Essay On Thomas. This study aims to business for security company find out factors which affect health services utilization among rural residents with chronic diseases. Data was secondary data. It consists of 410 patients who received treatment in outpatient department, and 112 patients who received treatment in inpatient department. OLS regression and Poisson regression methods were used to analyze the data. In addition, concentration index and concentration curve were used estimated equality in outpatient and inpatient department and in eight townships. Essay On Thomas Jefferson. The results of listening at ebay, this study show that household income per adult equivalent scale and age, chronic disease, county, marital status, occupation and medical institution have impacts on health services utilization in inpatient department. Age, bed, chronic disease, county, household income per capital and distance, education, family size, gender, medical institution and occupation influences health services utilization in outpatient department. In addition, concentration index indicate that poorer people tend to more easily suffer inequity of inpatient health services. Moreover, the concentration index of inpatient is higher than outpatient, it means the inpatient have more inequality. By comparison of the eight townships, Bayanhua Township appears to have more inequality than others.

TOWARDS UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE: ACCESS AND UTILIZATION OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN BHUTAN. This study aims to explore utilization of health care services in Bhutan, specifically assess how geographical and socio-demographic-economic factors influence the use of on thomas jefferson, health care services and choice of on good personality, health facilities for on thomas vs alexander outpatient and inpatient basis. The study also investigates the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on the drug expense and transportation expense that are related to medical use. In essence, this study on utilization of health care services will be able to essay of teenagers shed some light on the prospect of the country in moving towards universal health coverage. A cross-sectional data, Bhutan Living and Standard Survey 2012, is used for essay on thomas hamilton the study. At the essay on good traits initial stage of the analysis, binary logit regression and multinomial logit regression are used to determine whether individuals use outpatient and essay on thomas jefferson hamilton inpatient services, and less essay if used the type of on thomas jefferson, health facilities visited. Thereafter, marginal effect corresponding to each factor is traits, calculated to give the magnitude of the impact of each socio-economic and demographic factor on jefferson vs alexander hamilton the probability of using services and the probability of less is more, choosing each health facilities. The result indicated that geographical factors are the critical factors determining the choice of essay jefferson vs alexander, using health care services at different levels of plan company, health facilities. Although income has some effect, its impact varies across different facility choice.

The socio-economic and essay on thomas demographic factors were not sensitive to the out of less is more, pocket health expense. ASSESSING FISCAL SPACE FOR NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE IN SUDAN. Assoc. Vs Alexander. Prof. Siripen Supakankunti,, Ph.D. There is less essay, a relationship between economic and health, where each one affects the other positively and negatively. The Sudanese economy is currently witnessing significant shifts, as a result of political and social interactions. All these cast a shadow on the health status and thus on the financial situation of the fund for essay jefferson vs alexander national health insurance. This study aims to examine the fiscal space potentiality for national health insurance in Sudan.

The methodology used is fiscal space categories and in-depth interviews with stakeholders and less is more economic expert in March 2014. Health in essay jefferson vs alexander Sudan financed through various sources such as public budget, health insurance, charge fees and grants. The sources of finance for national health insurance fund (NHIF) are through contribution and government direct and indirect subsidy. The results of fiscal space assessing for health reveal that, fiscal space realizing has a good potentiality through earmark tax implementation for cigarette. Business For Security Company. With the moderate in macroeconomic situations according to expected growth in on thomas jefferson vs alexander GDP, the potentiality to gatorade essay generate fiscal space is on thomas jefferson hamilton, moderate. The weak potentiality in re-prioritization of health in at ebay case analysis the government statement as a result of public revenue projected to decrease. The fiscal space for implementation of universal health coverage is limited due to vs alexander hamilton large size of informal sector and poverty rate. The grant and aids is listening study analysis, limited because the rate is low.

The benefit for NHIF from efficiency gains is indirect; therefore the fiscal space is on thomas, limited. This result quietly underlined in online book the in-depth interviews outcomes. Essay Jefferson. The study recommends policy interventions to gatorade essay secure fiscal space creation in Sudan for NHIF. ASSESSING THE INAILCAL SUSTIANABILTY OF UNIVERSAL HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME ‘AASNADHA’ IN THE MALDIVES. This study was conducted for ‘Aasandha’, the vs alexander health insurance scheme in the Maldives to assess the financial sustainability of the scheme. Maldives's universal health insurance scheme “Aasandha” came in to listening study existence after the Parliamentary Act of jefferson hamilton, Social Health Insurance. Aasandha benefits is widespread; it covers services ranging to inpatient and outpatient treatment including drugs and diagnostics, though subject to certain conditions, within an overall cap of MRF 100,000 per person per online year.

In theory, the entire population of the country, comprising over 3, 30,000 citizens, is eligible for scheme benefits without any premium contributions. Qualitative approach of study was done to find the data on the Aasandha's administration and the key informant were interviewed to seek the needed information. Secondary data on hospital costs, costs and funds for on thomas jefferson hamilton the scheme from administrators (NSPA) were gathered to about make a comparison for 2011 and 2012. Essay Hamilton. The financial sustainability involves forecasting for the future, macroeconomic forecasts provide a mandatory stand for which the listening at ebay analysis health care financing can be thoroughly assessed. For this, projection are calculated by jefferson vs alexander using the macro economic data, population growth and hospital cost to have a clear foreseen for 2014-2018. Company. The research design used in this study was descriptive research. The study result shows that the essay total cost of the hospital during the year 2011 was Rf 377,485,242.28 and in the year 2012 was Rf 343,431,217.43.The unit cost for the OPD for the year 2011 was Rf 94.79 per visit while in 2012 it was Rf 91.45 per visit. Furthermore, the study shows that the total cost of Aasandha for essay the year 2012 was Rf 810,810,640 while it increased to Rf 814,740,394 in the 2013. Essay On Thomas Hamilton. With the online maker changes in the policies regarding the removal of the ceiling the study was done to assess the financial sustainability of the essay jefferson scheme if the ceiling is removed. And the results shows that the removal of the listening at ebay case study Rf100, 000 ceiling will affect the essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander financial sustainability of the scheme. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY VERSUS OPEN SURGERY IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA AT INNER MONGOLIA UNIVERSITY SUBSIDIARY HOSPITAL IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA.

The purposes of this study are to calculate the treatment cost on gatorade essay the perspective of hamilton, provider, to less essay assess short outcome (complications avoided) and medium outcome (2 years disease free survival rate) as well as the cost - effectiveness of the surgical treatments for renal cell carcinoma. This study aims to compare the vs alexander 30 patients of laparoscopic surgery with 30 patients of listening at ebay study analysis, open surgery in Inner Mongolia Medical University Subsidiary Hospital in Inner Mongolia in China during 2010-2011,The data source is from the medical records and hospital cost accounting bills. The results showed that the cost of laparoscopic surgery is $ 1326.2 / person, the number of complications avoided patients are 24 out of 30 patients. Therefore, the average cost of each complications avoided is $55.25. Moreover, the cost of open surgery is $920.6 / person, the number of essay jefferson, complications avoided patients are 26 out of case study analysis, 30 patients and the average cost of essay on thomas hamilton, each complications avoided is $35.4. In conclusion, from the provider perspective's point of view and based on online report the limited available database, the effectiveness of essay on thomas jefferson hamilton, open surgery seems to be better than the effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery. However, the essay personality traits interpretation of the study results should be with caution regarding the implementation of a surgical procedure to treat this disease further since this study employed only one hospital data base and a short period of on thomas jefferson vs alexander, time. FACTORS AND BARRIERS THAT AFFECT THE PARTICIPATION IN VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE OF PEOPLE IN INFORMAL SECTOR IN BAVI DISTRICT, HANOI 2012. This study is a cross-sectional one that collects data about the enrollment in health insurance and the socio-economic factors of less essay, people in Bavi district. The purposes of this study were to analyze the essay on thomas jefferson hamilton factors and barriers affecting the participation in voluntary health insurance among people of different socio-economic groups in informal sector in Bavi district in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2012.

This study analyzed the secondary data of 22,728 individuals. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression were used to describe the trend and discover the gatorade essay determinants of the decision on jefferson vs alexander hamilton purchasing voluntary health insurance of people and business company the reasons for never enrolling or renewing health insurance of people with non-enrollment status. The results reveal that gender and age, educational level, economic status, health status and occupation have significantly impact on on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton the enrollment in voluntary scheme. Regarding to the non-enrollment population, age, gender, marital status, educational level, economic status, health status and occupation are found to have impact on the decision of not buying health insurance or not renewing of people. The most common barrier is “no money to buy”, following by “Complex procedures and “no sickness” as the second and the third common barriers. In terms of impacts of barriers, financial difficulty ranks first among the barriers, then “poor attitude of health staff” and “inadequate insurance benefit” come next. Farmers are found to be less likely to enroll and gatorade essay financial difficulty plays critical role when considering enrollment in health insurance.

Dependents have tendency of enroll in health insurance while employed people seems less interested in having health insurance. Both dependents and employed people share the same barrier of” switching type of on thomas vs alexander, health insurance” as the case study analysis most impact reason for their non-enrollment status. PATIENT'S SATISFACTION AND QUALITY OF HEALTHCARE: CASE OF HOSPITALS IN HO CHI MINH CITY. The study aims to assess the patient’ satisfaction by using a new method called SERVQUAL technique which conducted in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC)’ hospitals. This technique will measure the gap between patients’ expectation and their perception followed 6 dimensions of essay hamilton, inpatient healthcare service in a public hospital and a private hospital. Of Teenagers. The higher the gap score is, the greater patients satisfy. On the other hand, this technique will also measure the on thomas importance weight of each dimension and combine with the gap score to rank the quality of dimension.

The final results showed that in public and private hospital at this moment, their healthcare service in two HCMC’ hospitals have not met patients’ expectations, although in public hospital, in each dimension, the gap score is better than in private hospital. In other words, to rank the quality of each dimension will help two hospitals in term of determining their weakness which should be improved in the future. DETERMINANTS OF INFORMAL SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN THE NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE FUND IN KASSALA STATE (EASTERN SUDAN) The aim of this thesis is to online book report identify the main factors that affect the decision of participation in the voluntary scheme of NHIF-Kassala state in eastern Sudan. This scheme was designed to cover the essay households in the informal sector in Kassala state and it's characterized by online book its low coverage and high dropout rate. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the perceptions of the participant about the essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander voluntary scheme of NHIF in Kassala state.

A primary data from 784 respondents was collected and analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Then, an in depth interviews was conducted with 5 characters from Kassala state who represent the National Health Insurance Fund, State Ministry Of Health and community leaders Urban and rural areas. The outcome of the study shows that; awareness about the scheme, satisfaction with provided services, education, number of medical visits, health status of the households and distance of health facilities have a significant impact on the enrollment mechanism. Moreover, the is more essay study shows that the scheme suffers from adverse selection problem. The thesis concludes that, to vs alexander motivate participation and maintain membership, the NHIF offices should focus more on increasing the level of awareness among the target households, increase accessibility to health insurance services, especially in rural area, improve the quality of services and reform the selection criteria of the subsidized scheme. DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT OF HEALTH INSURANCE ON OUT OF POCKET HEALTH EXPENDITURE BETWEEN HOUSEHOLD WITH AND WITHOUT NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN URBAN HANOI IN 2012. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) imposed a large economic burden in society and are having an increasing trend.

The mortality rate of those with NCDs is remarkable and alarming: 75% of deaths were due to NCDs in Vietnam while cost for treatment of NCD patients is quite high. The current level of out-of-pocket (OOP) payment in Vietnam was very high ranging 50% - 70% of total health expenditure. Health Insurance Law was implemented in Vietnam in 2009 and the coverage of health insurance increases steadily through the year from 1998 to 2012 aimed to achieve Universal Coverage. Up to 31/12/2012, Vietnam has 59.3 million people covered by health insurance; account for around 67% of population. The main objective of this study is to on good personality traits determine the impact of health insurance on health expenditure of individual with and without NCDs. Essay On Thomas Vs Alexander Hamilton. We used secondary data from survey conducted in urban districts of Hanoi in 2012. Tobit regression, quantile regression and logit regression were employed to identify the factors that affect OOP payment of individuals, OOP as a proportion of total consumption (OOP/TC) and gatorade essay catastrophic health spending of households.

The main findings of this study are that compulsory health insurance can financially protect individuals, help them to reduce their OOP payment as well as the OOP spending as a proportion of total consumption, especially for vs alexander those in upper tail of OOP distribution. Moreover, compulsory health insurance can help to protect hypertension patients for outpatient services and for essay diabetes patients when seek inpatients health care services. Individual with high educational level and jefferson used inpatient health care services will have higher OOP expenditure. Living in slum residential area, households have member used inpatient services and NCDs rate within a household are factors that increase the chances of incurring catastrophic health expenditure for households. FACTORS AFFECTING FINANCIAL PROTECTION AMONG POOR HOUSEHOLDS IN SUDAN.

Protection of poor households against the risk of medical expenses is one of the main objectives looked at by the governments especially in low and middle income countries. In Sudan, out of pocket health expenditure reaches 64.5% of total health expenditure. This high out of pocket expense is the less is more essay challenge facing poor households. Therefore, welfare health insurance scheme, which is a subsidized scheme, has been introduced and targeted towards the poor by providing them with financial protection. The objective of this study is to examine the factors affecting poor household`s financial protection and the magnitude of their effects. The study is quantitative and it utilizes cross-sectional data from on thomas jefferson hamilton Sudan Households Health Utilization Expenditure Survey in case Northern States 2009. Samples of 6986 poor households are found eligible for this study. Binary Logit regression is employed for essay on thomas vs alexander the analysis.

Results showed that health insurance coverage among poor was 16%, only 25.9% were urban residents, 24.9% were chronically ill. Poor insured households were less likely to incur catastrophe by 2.5% than uninsured at 40% cut off point while chronic illness was the main cause of catastrophe among insured and uninsured with higher probability among uninsured. Urban resident were less likely to incur catastrophe with probability of 8.7% less than those in the rural. Our finding shows that NHIF coverage provided financial protection for about poor households but at low rates. In addition, chronic illnesses were the main cause of catastrophe among poor households. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Vs Alexander Hamilton. Lower incidence of catastrophe was found among urban residents than rural ones. Female headed households were more vulnerable to catastrophe than the gatorade essay male headed ones. CONTRACTING HEALTH CARE SERVICES FOR COVERAGE EXPANSION OF SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEME IN MYANMAR: POTENTIAL AND PROBLEMS. At present, Myanmar’s Social Security Scheme (SSS), which is run by the Ministry of on thomas, Labour (MoL)’s Social Security Board, covers 2.1 per cent of the country’s labour force across 110 townships. Although insured workers, who cannot access MoL health facilities, may seek treatment at health facilities under the Ministry of plan for security, Health, which are then reimbursed, on average only about 250 cases per month use this option. In addition, the quality of care has remained an area of concern.

In light of recent amendments of the Social Security Law, it is therefore important to assess if the contracting model could be used to increase coverage and improve the quality of on thomas hamilton, services offered by the SSS. This study is a qualitative study, using secondary data and primary data from 26 in-depth interviews with key stakeholders as well as a focus group discussion, and examines the online perception of stakeholders to find out the potential and problem for contracting health care service. The main findings are problems for contracting as internal reforming which changing mind set Social Security’s worker, setting rule and regulation for contracting, for external problems negotiating with outsider for contracting terms and potential for contracting as pharmacy contracting. COST ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY HEALTHCARE CLINICS: A CASE STUDY OF COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATIONS IN MYANMAR IN 2013. This study is on thomas vs alexander hamilton, a cost analysis of primary healthcare clinics of community-based organizations (CBO) in Myanmar in 2013. CBO primary healthcare clinics are categorized into three types: type A (clinic that is housed in a CBO-based hospital, with general practitioners, specialists and essay on good laboratory services), type B (clinic that is not housed in on thomas hamilton a CBO-based hospital, with general practitioners, specialists and laboratory services) and type C (clinic that is not housed in a hospital, and essay personality has general practioner services only). The facilities that represent type A, B, C in this study are WachetSangha Hospital, Bya-mha-so civil-serviced organization, Well-hearted Sea Charity Clinic respectively and they are all located around Mandalay city.

The costing method for type A and type B is the step-down allocation method, with the salvage value being 10% of the original value and the depreciation method being straight line. The costing method for type C is the direct allocation method. The difference reflects the fact type C has only one cost center (general outpatient department, OPD), whereas type A and B have more than one (general OPD, eye OPD, dental OPD and other). Opportunity cost of donated labor (by medical personnel) are also factored into the calculation based on the government's salary. The unit costs of general OPD for type A, B, C are 6020, 2108, 1102 MMK respectively.

Sensitivity analyses are also performed, assuming different depreciation methods, salvage value and using private sector salaries for opportunity cost. The unit cost of type A is still higher than B and C. The difference of total costs and unit costs depends mainly on changes in opportunity cost, the utilizing rate and higher usage of resources in jefferson vs alexander hamilton the administrative department. The study has an implication on how the Myanmar government may contract CBO clinics in expanding its health coverage.

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essay on subsistence Read CC In Your. Subscribe To Our. 09 January, 2011. M ost people in modern industrial society get their food mainly from supermarkets. As a result of declining hydrocarbon resources, such food will not always be available. Partly as a further consequence of declining hydrocarbons, electricity and metals will also be in short supply. The present world population is nearly 7 billion, but food supplies per capita have been shrinking for years. In terms of daily life, the most important effect of oil depletion will be that shortage of food.

Agriculture will have to become more localized, and it will be necessary to reconsider less-advanced forms of technology that might be called “subsistence farming.” The following notes are based on a North American perspective, in particular my own experience in hamilton farming, but they can be applied more generally to business for security, conditions in other parts of the world. Subsistence farming might be defined as having three characteristics. In the first place, as much as possible it involves less-advanced technology; reliance on machinery and chemicals will not be possible without a global economic network to support them, whereas a shovel, a hoe, and a wheelbarrow (with a non-pneumatic tire!) are probably a once-only purchase #8213; and on thomas jefferson the day will come when even some of these things will not be available. Eventually horses and other draft animals will be a common sight, although it will take a good many years to breed and train sufficient numbers. Secondly, subsistence farming needs to be water-efficient. Without a municipal water supply or a motorized pump, water for agriculture will no longer be abundant.

Thirdly, subsistence farming entails a largely vegetarian way of life: the growing of crops takes less land than raising animals (although some animals can make good use of less-fertile land), and at ebay case it is less complicated. Essay Vs Alexander? With a largely vegetarian diet, of course, there can be a danger of deficiencies in vitamins A and B12, iron, calcium, and fat, all of which can be found in animal food. Fishing, trapping, and hunting would be useful skills. At Ebay Study Analysis? Anyone determined to on thomas hamilton, raise keep animals for meat may find that chickens are the least troublesome, but they should be raised in a simpler manner than that described by most of the at ebay case study analysis modern books, which are based on maximized (commercialized) production rather than “survivability.” New land should be broken with a plow, a device that generally requires either a tractor or a draft animal, but a fair amount can be done with hand tools. Much depends on the time of year and the weather. In the spring after a good rain, it is possible to dig up 50 m2 in a day, even if one is not especially muscular. In August after a long drought, digging even 5 m2 in a day might be hard. But there are ways to on thomas jefferson vs alexander, the task easier: if the grass is gatorade essay, long, it can be cut with a scythe before the digging begins, and hot weather can be avoided by starting work at dawn. When the sod has been dug up, it can be shaken thoroughly to essay on thomas vs alexander, release the soil. It should then be piled up and gatorade essay burned if it consists of perennial grasses, which are more like to essay hamilton, take root again than to turn into compost.

Actually many of the native North Americans preferred forest, rather than grassland, as sites for agriculture. The forest land was more fertile, and digging up heavy sod would have been arduous with the available tools. The native people girdled the trees (i.e., cut a ring of bark from around each tree) to kill them, and then felled them much later, with fire and axes. Besides grains and fruits, the most useful food plants in business plan temperate climates belong to about nine families, including the vs alexander hamilton Amaryllidaceae (garlic, leeks, onions), Chenopodiaceae (beets, chard), Brassicaceae (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, collards, kale, kohlrabi, rutabagas, turnips), Leguminosae (beans, peanuts, peas), Umbelliferae (carrots, parsnips), Convolvulaceae (sweet potatoes), Solanaceae (peppers, potatoes, tomatoes), and about depression of teenagers Cucurbitaceae (squash). A good general rule is to choose old-fashioned (including “heirloom” or “heritage”) varieties rather than modern, big plants rather than small (but small fruit rather than big), pole or vine rather than bush. On Thomas Hamilton? Popular varieties over the last several decades, unfortunately, have been heading in the opposite direction. Commercial growers want faster varieties, urban gardeners want small ones. Choosing varieties that are hardy and drought-resistant means going in the opposite direction. On Good Traits? The rule does not always work bush beans are not necessarily worse than pole beans, for example but it serves as a guide. Essay Jefferson Vs Alexander? A somewhat similar guide is to case study analysis, look for something that closely resembles a wild plant, or is roughly the same thing as a wild plant dandelions, mustard, or purslane, for example. Modern-day city-dwellers who live sedentary lives are likely to focus on low-calorie food.

Those concerned about subsistence farming will want to do the opposite: country living requires substantial meals. Subsistence farming means the vs alexander hamilton production of gatorade essay, a large number of calories with a small amount of labor and jefferson vs alexander a small amount of online book maker, risk, and perhaps with not much land. Essay On Thomas Jefferson Hamilton? With these factors in mind, one could say that there are not so many crops worthy of attention. Less Essay? There is on thomas jefferson hamilton, no such thing as a perfect type of food to grow, because there are advantages and disadvantages to every type. Listening Case Analysis? Reliance on a single crop would be dangerous, and variety is essential. We never know exactly what will happen, and jefferson vs alexander no rules are absolute. Many of what might seem obvious choices may be questionable. Less Is More? Potatoes are highly susceptible to Colorado potato beetles, blight, and several other pests and diseases. Vs Alexander? The brassicas are excellent for vitamins and minerals, but some of them are bothered by pests and diseases; kale is perhaps the least trouble-prone. A good starting point would be to focus on corn (maize), beans, and squash, the main crops grown by the native peoples of North America.

These three crops are easy to grow, and they require little or no watering if the plants are well spaced. Corn and beans, eaten together, provide excellent protein. In areas where there is sufficient summer heat and sunshine, corn is by far the most important crop to grow. Other grains can be substituted, but these require more tools as well as complicated methods of threshing and winnowing. They also have lower yields per hectare, and the greater amount of land makes a horse and plow almost a necessity if one is expecting to feed an entire family on a largely vegetarian diet. Without mechanization or fertilizer, a hectare of rye, for example, yields about 1,000 kg per year, resulting in study only 3 or 4 million kilocalories (“calories”), barely enough for 3 or 4 hardworking people. Corn has the scientific name of Zea mays and several confusing common names. Hamilton? There are basically two types of corn, sweet corn and field (grain) corn, although these are not botanical distinctions.

The former is the type that is usually eaten as “corn on the cob.” Sweet corn, unfortunately, is unsuitable for drying, and it has more problems with diseases and insects. Field corn, on listening study analysis, the other hand, is definitely worth growing. It is essential to grow only open-pollinated varieties of corn; hybrid types do not reproduce properly. In modern times one is unlikely to find varieties of corn that qualify as both “field corn” and “open-pollinated,” with the exception of those colorful varieties that are generally known as “Indian” or “ornamental” corn. Of those, the hard (“flint”) types do better in areas where spring or fall frosts may be a danger.

Beans (e.g., Phaseolus vulgaris) and essay on thomas jefferson other legumes are another important part of the gatorade essay diet, especially for people on on thomas jefferson, a vegetarian or largely vegetarian diet. Beans are high in for security protein, they are not demanding in terms of soil or climate, and they need little or no irrigation, at least after they have produced a few leaves. Unlike most other plants, legumes actually add nitrogen to the soil; traditional agriculture has always relied on their vital service. Squash can be divided informally into the soft-skinned “summer” types and the hard-skinned “winter” types. Summer squash provide only essay vs alexander hamilton, 167 kcal/kg, as opposed to 475 kcal for winter squash, so it is the latter that are more important. Listening At Ebay Study? All squash are members of the genus Cucurbita, and of these the three main species are C. maxima, C. Vs Alexander? pepo, and C. moschata. C. maxima includes Buttercup, Hubbard, and book report maker Delicious, all of which are drought-resistant. C. pepo winter squash worth growing are Acorn, Spaghetti, and essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton the “true” pumpkin (a lot of so-called pumpkins are a type of C. Online Maker? maxima); these are also drought-resistant, but Acorn squash is not especially good for storing. Essay On Thomas Jefferson? Of the C. moschata types, the most familiar is Butternut; while it is not noteworthy for being drought-resistant, it is one of the listening at ebay case analysis best squash for storing.

In general, vining squashes are more drought-resistant than bush types. Most of the world’s land is not suitable for agriculture. Either the soil is not fertile or the on thomas hamilton climate is too severe. Anyone intending to buy a piece of essay depression, land should take a sample of the soil and have it tested by a government-approved laboratory, while services of that kind are still available. If the on thomas jefferson hamilton soil is gatorade essay, really poor to begin with, and especially if it is very low in potassium or phosphorus, there is not a great deal that can be done about it, at least with the resources available in a survival situation. If most of the essay jefferson trees are evergreens, the land is business company, too acidic. Acidic soil may also be indicated by chamomile, garden sorrel, mayweed, or sheep sorrel.

Land that is essay vs alexander hamilton, excessively wet due to poor drainage may be growing buttercup, cattail, ferns, ironweed, Joe-Pye weed, or loosestrife. Other weeds might be indicators of reasonably good soil: amaranth, burdock, lamb’s quarters, purslane, ragweed, or thistles. Soil used for on good traits, the growing of essay, crops must have adequate amounts of organic matter (humus), which can come directly from decomposed vegetation or from gatorade essay, animal manure. Organic matter holds water and air in essay on thomas jefferson hamilton the soil, contains often to a rather limited extent some of the elements needed for plant growth, and provides an environment for small organisms that are essential to the fertility of the soil. Farmland must also have adequate amounts of is more essay, about 16 elements naturally occurring or otherwise. These are boron, calcium, carbon, chlorine, copper, hydrogen, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and zinc. Of these 16, the most critical are phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and especially nitrogen (N).

Calcium and magnesium are probably next in on thomas jefferson hamilton importance. Business For Security? Some of the elements may be found in organic matter, but the quantities are generally insufficient. Essay On Thomas? These elements might be abundant in the soil before any cultivation is done, but whenever crops are harvested a certain amount of the three critical elements is removed. The problem of inadequate amounts of the 16 elements is online book report maker, generally remedied nowadays by adding fertilizer, which can be artificial or can come from such sources as rock dust the latter a fashionable “soil amendment” that will no longer be available without hydrocarbon-based mining and transportation. Acidity can be counteracted by adding crushed limestone (again, not likely to be available) or wood ashes, which contain calcium. Nitrogen, however, can be provided by on thomas jefferson hamilton, planting any legume, such as beans or peas, since bacteria in the roots take nitrogen from the air; the is more plants must be dug back into the soil. Primitive societies had a simple but imperfect solution to the problem of maintaining fertility: abandonment. Essay On Thomas Vs Alexander? No fertilizer was used, except for ashes; as a result, the less is more soil became exhausted after a few years, so the fields were abandoned and new ones were dug. A common response to the N-P-K problem, used in essay jefferson hamilton many countries for centuries, has been to listening case study, turn crop waste into compost and put it back onto the land. The problem with that technique is jefferson hamilton, that one cannot create a perpetual-motion machine: every time the compost is recycled, a certain amount of N-P-K is lost, mainly in the form of human or animal excrement after the crops are eaten, but also as direct leaching and evaporation. One can come closer to sustainability by online maker, recycling those human and animal wastes, but the recycling will always be less than perfect.

After all, nitrogen, phosphorus, and essay on thomas vs alexander potassium are elements, and by definition they cannot be created. Essay On Good Traits? Of the three main elements, nitrogen is by essay, far the most subject to is more, loss by on thomas, leaching, but to some extent that can also happen with phosphorus and potassium. There are partial solutions that are worth considering. Besides using vegetable compost and animal manure for increasing the sustainability of agricultural land, many societies have employed such related techniques as crop-rotation, fallowing (leaving land uncultivated for a year or so), cover-cropping, and book report maker green manuring. Such practices also replenish the humus content of the soil. Some of these practices can even partly replenish the important elements: weathering can break rock particles down to release those elements, and plants with deep roots can draw such elements to the surface. Some of these techniques are difficult with hand tools, however. In other countries, vegetation was brought in from the essay on thomas jefferson hamilton hills, or mud was taken from gatorade essay, streams that ran down from the mountains (King, n.d.).

The term “irrigation” refers to any use of essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander, water other than the direct use of rainfall or other natural precipitation. Gatorade Essay? In a post-oil economy it will not be possible to use a motorized water supply for irrigation. Yet if one were to try using an old-fashioned hand pump to essay on thomas jefferson, get the water out of the well, a good deal of plan for security company, manual labor would be involved. A garden needs about essay hamilton 2 or 3 cm of water a week. On a garden of 1 hectare, that would amount to at least 200 m3 of water. That would mean carrying a bucket to the pump about 6,700 times a week, except when it rained.

Not very practical. What the North American native people and maker pioneers did was to give the plants plenty of space, and then just rely on essay vs alexander hamilton, the rain. Almost any type of crop, given enough room, can be left to the mercy of the on good personality weather, although some crops need to be watered as seeds or seedlings. The essence of essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander, water-efficient farming is to space the plants out so that the distance between them is greater than most modern farming manuals recommend. Is More Essay? That way the roots can spread out and on thomas jefferson explore in all directions to find the water that has been stored there over the previous months. To keep that underground moisture from evaporating, a hoe must be used to remove all weeds, because most water vanishes through plant leaves. Hoeing also keeps the surface of the ground watertight by creating a “dust mulch”: water does not easily pass through a layer of well disturbed dust, since the lack of water and gatorade essay the separation of particles prevent capillary action. (“Organic” mulches, such as wood chips or hay, are not much use on an entire garden; even if one could find enough material for on thomas hamilton, so much land, there would be further trouble with bugs, weeds, and cold soil.) If the garden has at least 1 meter of soil, and if there is also close to a meter of precipitation annually, with that moisture spread out fairly evenly over the 12 months, then it is possible to garden without irrigation (Solomon, 1993). On the other hand, if there is only about 30 cm of soil above the essay of teenagers bedrock, or if there is less than about 50 cm of precipitation annually, farming without irrigation is essay vs alexander, still possible, but the plants need to be spaced out far more.

In other words, and business plan contrary to popular belief, “intensive gardening” is not practical without a garden hose and essay vs alexander hamilton an unlimited supply of water. More plants per unit of land simply means using more water per unit of land. With such a method, the lack of bare ground between rows also means that it is not easy to get a hoe to the weeds; as L. H. Company? Bailey said long ago, intensive gardening is just “cultivating the backache” (1910, p. 451). There are about seven principles that apply to jefferson hamilton, the control of harmful insects, and essay depression of teenagers roughly the essay on thomas jefferson same principles are relevant to essay about of teenagers, the control of more primitive forms of life, such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria: (1) selection choosing resistant species and varieties; (2) diversity growing a fair number of species and varieties at essay jefferson vs alexander hamilton, the same time (avoiding monoculture); (3) rotation not growing a crop in the same place in the following year; (4) health keeping plants strong by essay of teenagers, providing good soil and enough water, light, and space; (5) sanitation removing and jefferson burning any dead or dying plants, and avoiding contact with wet plants; (6) tillage digging up the ground each year to destroy insects; (7) attack fighting insects by handpicking; one might also want to experiment with sprinkling wood ashes or spraying solutions of garlic, hot pepper, or soap. Vegetables can be stored for at ebay analysis, winter by keeping them in essay vs alexander a root cellar or something similar. The basic idea is to keep the food just above freezing.

In pioneer times a root cellar was often little more than a cave dug into a hillside and provided with a door. The earth provided the necessary coolness and humidity to keep the vegetables fresh all winter long. Nowadays a root cellar can be made by walling off a northern corner of less is more essay, a basement, including a window that can be opened to regulate temperature. Rutabagas, carrots, beets, and parsnips require packing in damp hay, sand, or some other damp material to prevent shriveling. Turnips do not store as well as rutabagas.

Potatoes and onions should be kept in jefferson vs alexander loosely woven bags or at least open boxes, in a dark room. Winter squash need slightly warmer conditions than other stored crops. Another simple method of storing is to build a clamp, which is an essay, outdoor mound of essay hamilton, vegetables placed on a 30-cm layer of dry vegetation (hay, leaves, or similar material), then covered with another 30-cm layer of dry vegetation, and finally covered with a layer of gatorade essay, earth. Essay Jefferson Vs Alexander? Usually some sort of essay on good, drainage is provided by essay jefferson, digging a trench around the clamp, but that is easily done as the soil is dug to plan, be put on jefferson vs alexander, top of the clamp. Clamping is simple and cheap, but it is online report maker, not always successful: a winter might be extreme, freezing and ruining the essay on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton food or solidifying the mound too much for online report maker, it to be opened. Drying is essay vs alexander, a good technique for preserving almost any crop. Grains and beans are very easy to report maker, dry.

Squash can be peeled and cut into strips or spirals 1 or 2 cm wide, then hung up to dry in on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton the sun. Beets, turnips, rutabagas, and carrots can be dried the same way. Fruits can also be spread out in the sun. Leafy vegetables can be tied in bunches and hung in the shade to dry for a few days before being packed into jars; in winter, these dried leaves can be crumbled and added to plan for security, soup. Producing a supply of seeds means keeping an eye on the more-desirable plants, and earmarking those for the next year’s crop. The best plants should be chosen, not the earliest; contrary to popular belief, seeds that appear late in the season do not produce slower plants the next year. Hybrid vegetables should always be avoided, because they do not reproduce properly. There are actually two methods for producing seed, although they overlap considerably. For the first method, crops are just left in the ground until they go to seed. Essay Vs Alexander Hamilton? Annuals are the simplest crops to deal with, since they go to seed in the first year, and often the seed is precisely what is essay personality traits, eaten; grains and beans are obvious examples. On Thomas Jefferson Hamilton? Biennials (two-year plants) most brassicas, for example are also possible candidates for this method.

The main question is whether the biennials can be left in the ground over the winter, and the answer to that depends on the species or variety, on the climate, and book perhaps on whether the selected plants are covered in winter with something such as leaves, grass, straw, or even twigs. The second method is to on thomas vs alexander, dig up the plants at the end of the first summer, store them carefully over the winter, and personality traits then replant them. This second method requires more work, but it is on thomas vs alexander hamilton, safer, and it also allows one to personality traits, “rogue out” (remove) stunted or deformed plants. In most cases it is best not to grow more than one variety of a vegetable for seed, because varieties will cross and produce offspring with uncertain qualities. Growing more than one variety is possible, however, if they are allowed to go to seed in alternate years, or if the varieties are planted several weeks apart so that they do not blossom at the same time.

Seeds need proper care if they are to stay viable. The longevity of seeds can be a single year or it can be many years, depending on the species, but that longevity can be increased by on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton, careful storage. Most seeds need to be kept very dry, and most also need to be kept away from light, so they should not be stored in glass jars, and essay personality it is important that they be sealed against insects or larger creatures. Growing one’s own vegetables is sometimes neither easy (labor-free) nor simple (uncomplicated). It’s only easy and simple if the garden is just a suburban backyard, and if a family doesn’t have to get through the essay jefferson vs alexander hamilton winter on what it has produced. Gatorade Essay? Even after reading many books on the subject, to on thomas jefferson, be good at growing crops takes years of at ebay analysis, practice. For one thing, it may take a while to develop one’s body to the point where it can properly handle the necessary walking, digging, and carrying.

It also requires understanding the principle that a period of rest can be as important as a period of on thomas jefferson vs alexander, work. Essay About Depression? A sense of timing is vital, both short-term and long-term: it’s possible to use hand tools to get a large boulder out of the jefferson hamilton ground, but not if the attempt is made in a mad rush. In order to be able to smile with satisfaction later at one’s labors, it is necessary to build up the muscles while maintaining that sense of balance. But the mental ability has its own prerequisites. I have had a fair number of academic pursuits over the years, and I can honestly say that farming ranks quite high as an intellectual challenge. When a crop does well or poorly, there are many reasons why that is so, and anyone who expects to have a sufficient harvest must find those reasons. To be a farmer, one must at the same time be a geologist, a microbiologist, an entomologist, a mammalogist, a botanist, and a meteorologist among other things. At Ebay Analysis? There are dozens of essay on thomas vs alexander, species of insects that can attack the crops, and there are dozens of mammals that can do the same. Every kind of listening at ebay, weed has a name and a nature, and one type is jefferson vs alexander, not dealt with the same as another. It is necessary to develop an eye for the weather, so that one can look at the sky and see tints and shades that would be invisible to a city-dweller.

And as with any other serious skill, there is a point at which a highly conscious and listening case analysis overly intellectual comprehension must be replaced or at on thomas jefferson vs alexander, least supplemented by a subconscious presentiment that might be labeled instinct or intuition. Not that life has to be so grim. On the contrary, there is nothing like growing one’s own food to dispel the problem of what Marx called “alienated labor.” Unlike so much of what constitutes urban life, subsistence farming fulfills a primal need. We are at last making the essay depression connection between “what we do” and “what we need.” Subsistence farming is fascinating in terms of the acquisition of knowledge. When we grow our own food, we can learn a great deal, and our curiosity about Nature will always be aroused. So much of that ancient art has been lost, or nearly lost, and whenever we are out in the fields we are reclaiming those skills. Whenever we plant seeds and watch them growing, we are preserving or rediscovering a valuable item of human knowledge. The world will need that wisdom soon enough, because that is the way people used to essay on thomas jefferson, live, and that is how they will live. Bailey, L.H. (1910).

Manual of gardening. New York: Macmillan. King, F. H. (n.d.). Farmers of forty centuries. On Good Personality Traits? Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Organic Gardening. Solomon, S. (1993).

Water-wise vegetables: For the maritime northwest gardener. Seattle: Sasquatch Books. Comments are not moderated. Please be responsible and civil in your postings and on thomas jefferson vs alexander hamilton stay within the topic discussed in the article too. Gatorade Essay? If you find inappropriate comments, just Flag (Report) them and essay jefferson they will move into moderation que.